ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 10

Cryoballoon ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation for de novo pulmonary vein isolation: a single-center follow-up study
Zhong-Jing CAO, Xiao-Gang GUO, Qi SUN, Yan-Qiao CHEN, Hai-Yang XIE, Jian-Du YANG, Hui-Qiang WEI, Jia-Hui LI, Jian MA
2022, 19(10): 725-733. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.001
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 BACKGROUND  Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone for persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF) remains controversial. The characteristics of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) to treat PersAF and the blanking period recurrence are underreported.  METHODS  This study retrospectively analyzed patients with PersAF undergoing second-generation CBA for de novo PVI. The post-procedural efficacy and survival analysis were compared between patients with different PersAF durations. The multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to detect the risk factors for recurrence. Early and long-term recurrence were analyzed relative to each other.  RESULTS  A total of 329 patients were enrolled, with a median PersAF duration of 4.0 months (interquartile range: 2.0–12.0 months); 257 patients (78.1%) were male. Kaplan-Meier analysis of freedom from atrial fibrillation recurrence at 12, 24, and 30 months showed 71.0%, 58.5%, and 54.9%, respectively. Early PersAF had a relatively favorable survival rate and a narrow P-wave duration of restoring sinus rhythm compared with that of PersAF lasting more than three months (P < 0.05). The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that PersAF duration and left atrial anteroposterior diameter ≥ 42 mm were the risk factors for atrial fibrillation recurrence after CBA [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01–1.4, P = 0.042; HR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.4–5.4, P < 0.001, respectively]. The blanking period recurrence predicted the long-term recurrence (P < 0.0001).  CONCLUSIONS  CBA of PersAF had safety and efficacy to reach de novo PVI. The PersAF duration and left atrial size were risk factors for atrial fibrillation recurrence after CBA. Blanking period recurrence was associated with long-term recurrence.
Development and validation of a nomogram for postoperative severe acute kidney injury in acute type A aortic dissection
Cong-Cong LUO, Yong-Liang ZHONG, Zhi-Yu QIAO, Cheng-Nan LI, Yong-Min LIU, Jun ZHENG, Li-Zhong SUN, Yi-Peng GE, Jun-Ming ZHU
2022, 19(10): 734-742. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.003
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 BACKGROUND  Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication associated with increased morbidity and mortality after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD). To the best of our knowledge, risk prediction models for AKI following AAAD surgery have not been reported. The goal of the present study was to develop a prediction model to predict severe AKI after AAAD surgery.  METHODS  A total of 485 patients who underwent AAAD surgery were enrolled and randomly divided into the training cohort (70%) and the validation cohort (30%). Severe AKI was defined as AKI stage III following the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Preoperative variables, intraoperative variables and postoperative data were collected for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to select predictors and develop a nomogram in the study cohort. The final prediction model was validated using the bootstrapping techniques and in the validation cohort.  RESULTS  The incidence of severe AKI was 23.0% (n = 78), and 14.7% (n = 50) of patients needed renal replacement treatment. The hospital mortality rate was 8.3% (n = 28), while for AKI patients, the mortality rate was 13.1%, which increased to 20.5% for severe AKI patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, serum creatinine, and D-dimer were key predictors for severe AKI following AAAD surgery. The logistic regression model incorporated these predictors to develop a nomogram for predicting severe AKI after AAAD surgery. The nomogram showed optimal discrimination ability, with an area under the curve of 0.716 in the training cohort and 0.739 in the validation cohort. Calibration curve analysis demonstrated good correlations in both the training cohort and the validation cohort.  CONCLUSIONS  We developed a prognostic model including age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, serum creatinine, and D-dimer to predict severe AKI after AAAD surgery. The prognostic model demonstrated an effective predictive capability for severe AKI, which may help improve risk stratification for poor in-hospital outcomes after AAAD surgery.
First-in-human evaluation of an independently developed Chinese robot-assisted system for percutaneous coronary intervention
Guang-Yao ZHAI, Zheng CHEN, Rui-Fang LIU, Yong-He GUO, Jian-Long WANG, Tie-Nan SUN, Jing XIE, Tao HUANG, Yu-Jie ZHOU
2022, 19(10): 743-752. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.002
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 BACKGROUND  Several studies have proved the safety and feasibility of robot-assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing the occupational hazards of interventionists while achieving precision medicine. However, an independently developed robot-assisted system for PCI in China has not yet emerged. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a robot-assisted system for elective PCI in China.  METHODS  This preclinical trial included 22 experimental pigs and preliminarily supported the safety and feasibility of the ETcath200 robot-assisted system for PCI. Then, eleven patients with coronary heart disease who met the inclusion criteria and had clinical indications for elective PCI were enrolled. PCI was performed using a robot-assisted system. The primary outcomes were clinical success (defined as visual estimated residual stenosis < 30% after PCI and no major adverse cardiovascular events during hospitalization and within 30 days after PCI) and technical success (defined as the ability to use the robot-assisted system to complete PCI successfully without conversion to the traditional manual PCI).  RESULTS  Eleven patients were included in this clinical trial. A drug-eluting stent with a diameter of 3 mm (interquartile range: 2.75–3.5 mm) and a length of 26 mm (interquartile range: 22–28 mm) was deployed in all patients. The clinical success rate was 100%, with no PCI-related complications and no in-hospital or 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events, and the technical success rate was 100%.  CONCLUSIONS  The results strongly suggest that the use of the independently developed robot-assisted system in China for elective PCI is feasible, safe, and effective.
Positive association between triglyceride glucose index and central systolic blood pressure among hypertensive adults
Li WANG, Tian-Yu CAO, Jin-Qiao LI, Cong-Cong DING, Jun-Pei LI, Hua-Bo YING, Li-Shun LIU, Xiao HUANG
2022, 19(10): 753-760. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.006
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 BACKGROUND  While studies have suggested the association between triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a reliable surrogate for insulin resistance and hypertension data are limited to the correlation of TyG and central blood pressure. This study aims to test the hypothesis that a higher TyG index is associated with elevated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP).  METHODS  A total of 9249 Chinese hypertensive adults from the H-type Hypertension and Stroke Prevention and Control Project were analyzed in this study. cSBP was measured noninvasively using an A-Pulse CASPro device. TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Smoothing curve and multivariate linear regression models [beta coefficient (β) with 95% CI] were applied to analyze the association between TyG index and cSBP. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore potential modifications to such a correlation.  RESULTS  The overall mean TyG index is 8.8 ± 0.7, and the total mean cSBP is 131.3 ± 12.8 mmHg. TyG index was observed to be independently and positively associated with cSBP among the total population (β = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.53–1.31, P < 0.001), and participants who do not use antihypertensive drugs (β = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.46–1.60, P < 0.001), which is in accordance with the result of the smoothing curve. The association between TyG index and cSBP appears robust in all tested subgroups.  CONCLUSIONS  TyG index is positively and independently associated with cSBP among hypertensive adults. Our study result suggests that TyG index might serve as an effective marker for vascular function.
Transcatheter mitral valve repair is feasible and effective in oldest-old patients: results from real-world cohort
Mhd Nawar Alachkar, Annemarie Kirschfink, Anas Alnaimi, Jörg Schröder, Felix Vogt, Nikolaus Marx, Ertunc Altiok, Mohammad Almalla
2022, 19(10): 761-767. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.004
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 OBJECTIVE  To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) using MitraClip® devices in oldest-old patients compared to younger patients.  METHODS  The study retrospectively included 340 consecutive patients who underwent TMVR. Patients were classified according to age into the oldest-old (age ≥ 85 years) patient group or the younger (age < 85 years) patient group. Immediate results of the procedure, intrahospital outcomes and one-year outcomes were compared.  RESULTS  Oldest-old patients represented 15.9% (n = 54) of all patients. Procedure success was comparable for the oldest-old patient group and the younger patient group (92.6% vs. 95.8%, P = 0.30), and there was no difference in intrahospital mortality (9.2% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.12). At a one-year follow-up (interquartile range: 6–16 months), there was no significant difference in rehospitalization due to decompensated heart failure (25.5% vs. 34.3%, P = 0.24) or all-cause mortality (29.8% vs. 22.2%, P = 0.26) between the oldest-old patient group and the younger patient group. In patients with available echocardiographic follow-up, severity of residual mitral regurgitation was also comparable between the oldest-old patient group and the younger patient group. CONCLUSIONS  TMVR seems to be feasible and effective in oldest-old patients and should be considered for oldest-old patients presenting with symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation and high surgical risk.
Using preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels for predicting major adverse cardiovascular events and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery in Chinese advanced-age patients
Kai ZHANG, Chang LIU, Jian TAN, Yu-Hai XU, Jiang-Bei CAO, Yan-Hong LIU, Qiang FU, Jing-Sheng LOU, Wei-Dong MI, Hao LI
2022, 19(10): 768-779. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.008
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 BACKGROUND  N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is often viewed as an indicator for heart failure. However, the prognostic association and the predictive utility of NT-proBNP for postoperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) among older patients are unclear.  METHODS  In this study, we included 5033 patients aged 65 years or older who underwent noncardiac surgery with preoperative NT-proBNP recorded. Logistic regression was adopted to model the associations between preoperative NT-proBNP and the risk of MACEs and MINS. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the predictive value of NT-proBNP.  RESULTS  A total of 5033 patients were enrolled, 63 patients (1.25%) and 525 patients (10.43%) had incident postoperative MACEs and MINS, respectively. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that the cutoff values of ln (NT-proBNP) for MACEs and MINS were 5.16 (174 pg/mL) and 5.30 (200 pg/mL), respectively. Adding preoperative ln (NT-proBNP) to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index score and the Cardiac and Stroke Risk Model boosted the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves from 0.682 to 0.726 and 0.787 to 0.804, respectively. The inclusion of preoperative NT-proBNP in the prediction models significantly increased the reclassification and discrimination.  CONCLUSIONS  Increased preoperative NT-proBNP was associated with a higher risk of postoperative MACEs and MINS. The inclusion of NT-proBNP enhances the predictive ability of the preexisting models.
Protein quality control systems in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: pathogenesis and treatment potential
Fan-Yan LUO, Yong-Ping BAI, Hai-Song BU
2022, 19(10): 780-784. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.010
Acute perimyocarditis following heterologous vaccination of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in an elderly woman
Shing Ching, Chiu Sun Yue
2022, 19(10): 785-787. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.007
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An elderly parachute mitral valve: still landing well
Fadi Kandah, William Kogler, Michael Omar, Srinivasan Sattiraju, Emil Missov
2022, 19(10): 788-788. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.009
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Management of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients aged ≥ 80 years: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Connor J Matthews, Joshua Kirby, Jonathan M Blaxill, John P Greenwood, Abdul M Mozid, Jennifer A Rossington, Murugapathy Veerasamy, Nancy Wassef, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Heerajnarain Bulluck
2022, 19(10): 789-790. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.10.005
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