ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 9

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In-hospital outcomes and readmission in older adults treated with percutaneous coronary intervention for stable ischemic heart disease
Dae Yong Park, Jonathan M. Hanna, Sumeet Kadian, Mannat Kadian, W. Schuyler Jones, Abdulla Al Damluji, Ajar Kochar, Jeptha P. Curtis, Michael G. Nanna
2022, 19(9): 631-642. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.006
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 Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) in older adults requires a meticulous assessment of procedural risks and benefits, but contemporary data on outcomes in this population is lacking. Therefore, we examined the risk of near-term readmission, bleeding, and mortality in high-risk cohort of older adults undergoing inpatient PCI for SIHD.  METHODS We analyzed the National Readmissions Database from 2017 to 2018 to identify index hospitalizations in which PCI was performed for SIHD. Patients were stratified into those ≥ 75 years old (older adults) and those < 75 years old. The primary outcome was 90-day readmission. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charge.  RESULTS A total of 74,516 patients underwent inpatient PCI for SIHD, of whom 24,075 were older adults. Older adult patients had higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.68-2.38), intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24-3.34), and gastrointestinal hemorrhage (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.07) during index hospitalization, with longer LOS and in-hospital charge. Older adults also experienced a higher hazard of 90-day readmission for any cause (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.57-1.66) and cardiovascular causes (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.77-1.91).  CONCLUSION Older adults undergoing inpatient PCI for SIHD were at increased risk for in-hospital mortality, periprocedural morbidities, higher cost, and readmissions compared with younger adults. Understanding these differences may improve shared decision-making for patients with SIHD being considered for PCI.
A short P-wave duration is associated with incident heart failure in the elderly: a 15 years follow-up cohort study
Bozena Ostrowska, Lars Lind, Elena Sciaraffia, Carina Blomström-Lundqvist
2022, 19(9): 643-650. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.008
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 BACKGROUND Early identification of patients at risk of congestive heart failure (HF) may alter their poor prognosis. The aim was therefore to test whether simple electrocardiographic variables, the P-wave and PR-interval, could predict incident HF.  METHODS  The PIVUS (Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors) study (1016 individuals all aged 70 years, 50% women) was used to identify predictors of HF. Subjects with prevalent HF, QRS duration ≥ 130 ms, atrial tachyarrhythmias, implanted pacemaker/defibrillator, second- and third-degree atrioventricular block or delta waves at baseline were excluded. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to relate the PR interval, P-wave duration (Pdur) and amplitude (Pamp), measured in lead V1, to incident HF. Adjustment was performed for gender, RR-interval, beta-blocking agents, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and smoking.  RESULTS  Out of 836 subjects at risk, 107 subjects were diagnosed with HF during a follow-up of 15 years. In the multivariate analysis, there was a strong U-shaped correlation between Pdur in lead V1 and incident HF (P = 0.0001) which was significant for a Pdur < 60 ms [HR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.87-4.06, at Pdur 40 ms] but not for prolonged Pdur. There was no significant relationship between incident HF and the PR-interval or the Pamp. A Pdur < 60 ms improved discrimination by 3.7% when added to the traditional risk factors including sex, RR-interval, beta-blocking agents, systolic blood pressure, BMI and smoking (P = 0.048).  CONCLUSIONS  A short Pdur, an easily measured parameter on the ECG, may potentially be a useful marker of future HF, enabling its early detection and prevention, thus improving outcomes.
The interaction effect of grip strength and lung function (especially FVC) on cardiovascular diseases: a prospective cohort study in Jiangsu Province, China
Jia-Li LIU, Jia-Qi WANG, Dan WANG, Yu QIN, Yong-Qing ZHANG, Quan-Yong XIANG
2022, 19(9): 651-659. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.007
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 OBJECTIVE Lung function and grip strength (GS) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether these risk factors interact to affect CVD is unknown. This study aimed to explore the interactions between lung function and GS with major CVD (defined as fatal/non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) incidence.  METHODS  We conducted a prospective cohort study on the Chinese population in Jiangsu Province. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the associations between GS, lung function, and major CVD incidence.  RESULTS A total of 5967 participants were included in our study; among them, 182 participants developed major CVD. Participants with low forced vital capacity (FVC) had a higher risk of major CVD (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–2.01; P < 0.05) compared with normal FVC. The risk of major CVD incidence (HR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35-0.83; P < 0.01) was significantly lower in participants with high GS than in individuals with low GS. The interaction between FVC and GS for major CVD incidence (P = 0.006) was statistically significant. Compared with normal FVC participants with high GS, low FVC participants with low GS had the highest risk of major CVD incidence (HR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.43-4.36; P < 0.01).  CONCLUSION  Among people with low FVC, the risk of major CVD is lower with high GS. Participants with low FVC and low GS have the highest risk of major CVD. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the incidence of major CVD in individuals with low FVC, especially those who have lower GS.
Association between heart failure severity and mobility in geriatric patients: an in-clinic study with wearable sensors
Tobias Braun, Anna Wiegard, Johanna Geritz, Clint Hansen, Kim Eng Tan, Hanna Hildesheim, Jennifer Kudelka, Corina Maetzler, Julius Welzel, Robbin Romijnders, Walter Maetzler, Philipp Bergmann
2022, 19(9): 660-674. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.010
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 BACKGROUND  Individuals with heart failure (HF) frequently experience limitations in mobility, but specific aspects of these limitations are not well understood. This study investigated the association of HF severity, based on the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes, with digital mobility outcomes (DMOs) and handgrip strength in older inpatients with HF.  METHODS  For this explorative analysis, hospital admission and discharge data from an ongoing, prospective cohort study were used. The sample included older participants with HF and a sub-sample of heart-healthy individuals. Participants were equipped with a wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU) system during mobility performance (balancing, sit-to-stand transfer, walking). We analyzed the association between 17 DMOs and HF severity with multiple linear regression models.  RESULTS The total sample included 61 older participants (65–97 years of age, 55.7% female). Of all DMOs, only sway path in a semi-tandem stance position (m/s²) showed a relevant association with NYHA classes (admission: β = −0.28, P = 0.09; discharge: β = −0.39, P = 0.02). Handgrip strength showed a trend towards a significant association (admission: β = −0.15, P = 0.10; discharge: β = −0.15, P = 0.19).  CONCLUSIONS  This is to our best knowledge the first analysis on the association of HF severity and IMU-based DMOs. Sway path and handgrip strength may be the most promising parameters for monitoring mobility aspects in treatment of HF.
Iatrogenic atrial septal defects after transseptal puncture for percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion and their hemodynamic effects
Ioannis Drosos, Roberta De Rosa, Philipp C. Seppelt, Sebastian Cremer, Silvia Mas-Peiro, Katrin Hemmann, Jana Oppermann, Recha Blessing, Mariuca Vasa-Nicotera, Andreas M. Zeiher, Zisis Dimitriadis
2022, 19(9): 675-684. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.009
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 Background  Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) requires puncture of the interatrial septum. The immediate hemodynamic effects of iatrogenic atrial septal defects (iASD) after LAAO have not been examined so far. We aimed at evaluating these effects through invasive measurements of pressure and oxygen saturation. Moreover, we assessed the incidence of persistent iASD at three months.  METHODS  Forty-eight patients scheduled for percutaneous LAAO were prospectively included in the study. Pressure and oxygen saturation were measured (1) in the right atrium (RA) before transseptal puncture, (2) in the left atrium (LA) through the transseptal sheath after transseptal puncture, (3) in the LA after removal of introducer sheath, and (4) in the RA after removal of introducer sheath. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed at three months to detect iASD.  RESULTS  Pressure in the RA increased significantly after removing the introducer sheath (P = 0.034), whereas no difference was found in oxygen saturation in the RA (P = 0.623). Pressure measurement in the LA showed no significant difference after removing the introducer sheath (P = 0.718). Oxygen saturation in the LA also showed no significant difference (P = 0.129). Follow-up transesophageal echocardiogram at 3 months revealed a persistent iASD in 4 patients (8.5 %).  CONCLUSIONS  Our study suggests that iASD after percutaneous LAAO does not result in significant shunts directly after the procedure, although a significant increase of mean right atrial pressure can be observed. Persistent iASDs after percutaneous LAAO seem to be relatively rare at three months.
Early identification of STEMI patients with emergency chest pain using lipidomics combined with machine learning
Zhi SHANG, Yang LIU, Yu-Yao YUAN, Xin-Yu WANG, Hai-Yi YU, Wei GAO
2022, 19(9): 685-695. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.003
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 OBJECTIVES To analyze the differential expression of lipid spectrum between ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) and patients with emergency chest pain and excluded coronary artery disease (CAD), and establish the predictive model which could predict STEMI in the early stage. METHODS We conducted a single-center, nested case-control study using the emergency chest pain cohort of Peking University Third Hospital. Untargeted lipidomics were conducted while LASSO regression as well as XGBoost combined with greedy algorithm were used to select lipid molecules. RESULTS Fifty-two STEMI patients along with 52 controls were enrolled. A total of 1925 lipid molecules were detected. There were 93 lipid molecules in the positive ion mode which were differentially expressed between the STEMI and the control group, while in the negative ion mode, there were 73 differentially expressed lipid molecules. In the positive ion mode, the differentially expressed lipid subclasses were mainly diacylglycerol (DG), lysophophatidylcholine (LPC), acylcarnitine (CAR), lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine (LPE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC), while in the negative ion mode, significantly expressed lipid subclasses were mainly free fatty acid (FA), LPE, PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). LASSO regression selected 22 lipids while XGBoost combined with greedy algorithm selected 10 lipids. PC (15: 0/18: 2), PI (19: 4), and LPI (20: 3) were the overlapping lipid molecules selected by the two feature screening methods. Logistic model established using the three lipids had excellent performance in discrimination and calibration both in the derivation set (AUC: 0.972) and an internal validation set (AUC: 0.967). In 19 STEMI patients with normal cardiac troponin, 18 patients were correctly diagnosed using lipid model. CONCLUSIONS The differentially expressed lipids were mainly DG, CAR, LPC, LPE, PC, PI, PE, and FA. Using lipid molecules selected by XGBoost combined with greedy algorithm and LASSO regression to establish model could accurately predict STEMI even in the more earlier stage.
Complement use of Chinese herbal medicine after percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective observational study
Si-Yu YAN, Wei-Xian YANG, Pei-Pei LU, Xuan-Tong GUO, Cai-Xia GUO, Yan-Ni SU, Li-Hong MA
2022, 19(9): 696-704. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.005
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 BACKGROUND Chinese herbal medicine is widely used as a complement or alternative treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in China. We compared the incidence of the major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) of CAD patients with or without the complement use of Chinese herbal medicine after PCI.  METHODS In this prospective, observational study that was conducted from September 2016 to August 2019 in Fuwai Hospital (China), we followed up consecutive patients who received PCI treatment for two years. MACE was defined as the composite all-cause mortality, revascularization, and myocardial infarction (MI) and was compared between those using (integrative medicine group) or those not using Chinese herbal medicine as an additional treatment to standard Western medicine, with unadjusted (Kaplan-Meier curves) and risk-adjusted (multivariable Cox regression) analyses.  RESULTS A total of 5942 patients after PCI were enrolled in this study, and 5453 patients were included in the final analysis (4189 [76.8%] male; mean age: 61.9 ± 9.9% years). During the follow-ups, 2932 (53.8%) patients used only Western medicine while 2521(46.2%) patients had used Chinese herbal medicine as an additional treatment to standard Western medicine. Patients in the integrative medicine group (IM group) were older than the Western medicine group (WM group), had more females and less previous MI. The incidence of MACE was 15.3% (449/2932) in WM group and 11.54% (291/2521) in IM group. Cox regression analysis showed that cumulative incidence of MACE was 27% lower in patients of the IM group than those in WM group (hazard ratio = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.85; P < 0.0001).  CONCLUSIONS For CAD patients after PCI treatment, complement use of Chinese herbal medicine is associated with a lower 2-year MACE incidence. Randomized prospective studies are warranted to provide higher levels of benefit evidence in these patients.
Efficacy of vasopressin, steroid, and epinephrine protocol for in-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis
Danish Iltaf Satti, Yan Hiu Athena Lee, Keith Sai Kit Leung, Jeremy Man Ho Hui, Thompson Ka Ming Kot, Arslan Babar, Gauranga Mahalwar, Abraham KC Wai, Tong Liu, Leonardo Roever, Gary Tse, Jeffrey Shi Kai Chan
2022, 19(9): 705-711. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.002
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 OBJECTIVES  To assess the effect of vasopressin, steroid and epinephrine (VSE) combination therapy on return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), and test the conclusiveness of evidence using trial sequential analysis (TSA). METHODS  The systematic search included PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included adult patients with IHCA, with at least one group receiving combined VSE therapy were selected. Data was extracted independently by two reviewers. The main outcome of interest was ROSC. Other outcomes included survival to hospital discharge or survival to 30 and 90 days, with good neurological outcomes. RESULTS  We included a total of three RCTs (n = 869). Results showed that VSE combination therapy increased ROSC (risk ratio = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.25-1.59) as compared to placebo. TSA demonstrated that the existing evidence is conclusive. This was also validated by the alpha-spending adjusted relative risk (1.32 [1.16, 1.49], P < 0.0001). Other outcomes could not be meta-analysed due to differences in timeframe in the included studies. CONCLUSIONS  VSE combination therapy administered in cardiopulmonary resuscitation led to improved rates of ROSC. Future trials of VSE therapy should evaluate survival to hospital discharge, neurological function and long-term survival.
Risk of pacemaker implantation after femur fracture in patients with and without a history syncope: a Danish nationwide registry-based follow-up study
Sara LK Clemmensen, Kristian Kragholm, Bhupendar Tayal, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Søren Kold, Peter Søgaard, Sam Riahi
2022, 19(9): 712-718. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.001
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 BACKGROUND  It has previously been described that fall-associated injuries including fractures are commonly observed among patients with bradyarrhythmia. However, knowledge on the risk of pacemaker implantation after admission due to femur fracture from large population-based epidemiologic data is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the risk of pacemaker implantation following femur fracture in patients with and without a history of previous syncope. METHODS  All patients with femur fracture between 2005-2017 were identified using the Danish Nationwide Patient Registry. Among these, patients already having a pacemaker were excluded. Primary outcome was one-year risk of pacemaker implantation and secondary outcome was one-year all-cause mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain absolute and relative risks of the study endpoint in relation to patients with versus without history of syncope and standardized to the age, sex, selected comorbidity and pharmacotherapy distribution of all patients. RESULTS Of 93,093 patients with femur fracture, 5508 (5.9%) had a history of syncope within five years. Patients with prior syncope were slightly older (84 vs. 83 years), more often male (33.6% vs. 29.4%), and had more often comorbidities relative to those without history of syncope. All-cause mortality was significantly higher among those with previous history of syncope compared to those without previous syncope (29.9% vs. 28.6%, P = 0.021). The relative mortality risk was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01−1.09, P = 0.021). A total of 695 (0.8%) patients underwent pacemaker implantation within 5 years following femur fracture, and a significantly higher proportion of patients with syncope had a pacemaker implanted within one year (1.6% vs. 0.7%, P < 0.001; relative risk, 2.01 [95% CI: 1.55−2.46]). CONCLUSIONS  In patients with femur fracture, a history of syncope was significantly associated with a higher one-year risk of pacemaker implantation.
Determinants of mortality among seniors acutely readmitted for heart failure: racial disparities and clinical correlations
Tuoyo O Mene-Afejuku, Gini P Jeyashanmugaraja, Mahfuz Hoq, Olatunde Ola, Amit J Shah
2022, 19(9): 719-724. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.09.004
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