ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 7

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Association of baseline hemoglobin A1c levels with bleeding in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome underwent percutaneous coronary intervention: insights of a multicenter cohort study from China
Hua-Lin FAN, Li-Huan ZENG, Peng-Yuan CHEN, Yuan-Hui LIU, Chong-Yang DUAN, Wen-Fei HE, Ning TAN, Ji-Yan CHEN, Peng-Cheng HE
2022, 19(7): 487-497. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.004
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 OBJECTIVE  To investigate the association between baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and bleeding in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).  METHODS  This observational cohort study enrolled 6283 consecutive NSTE-ACS patients undergoing PCI from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Based on baseline HbA1c levels, the patients were divided into the group with HbA1c < 7% (n = 4740) and the group with HbA1c ≥ 7% (n = 1543). The primary outcomes are major bleeding (BARC grades 3-5) and all-cause death during follow-up.  RESULTS Of patients enrolled, 4705 (74.9%) were male, and 2143 (34.1%) had a history of diabetes mellitus, with a mean (SD) age of 64.13 (10.32) years. The median follow-up duration was 3.21 years. Compared with the patients with HbA1c < 7%, the risk of major bleeding events during follow-up was higher in patients with HbA1c ≥ 7% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.44; P = 0.044), while the risk of all-cause death during follow-up was not associated with the higher HbA1c levels (adjusted HR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.66-1.18; P = 0.398).  CONCLUSIONS Compared with the lower baseline HbA1c levels, the higher baseline HbA1c levels were associated with an increase in long-term bleeding risk in NSTE-ACS patients undergoing PCI, though higher baseline HbA1c levels were not associated with the higher risk in all-cause death.
Use of potentially inappropriate medications for heart failure according to the three sets of heart failure-specific criteria in Thai older patients with heart failure
Jidapha Duangsong, Panida Samansaplert, Yosita Khamkong, Kittipak Jenghua
2022, 19(7): 498-510. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.001
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 OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications for patients with heart failure (PIMHF) use and to identify factors associated with PIMHF use in Thai older HF patients.  METHODS  This cross-sectional analytical survey included data on older (≥ 60 years) HF patients obtained from the electronic medical record databases of secondary- and tertiary-care hospitals. The medication profiles of patients were assessed to examine whether they were prescribed any PIMHF after an HF diagnosis. For PIMHF detection, the HF-specific criteria, including 2014 St Vincent criteria, 2019 Beers criteria, and 2021 Thailand criteria were applied. The prevalence of PIMHF use was expressed as percentages. The associated factors were identified using a binary logistic regression analysis, expressed as the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).  RESULTS A total of 2,639 patients were included in the study. Thirty-two PIMHF were found to have been prescribed to these patients. The prevalence of PIMHF use identified by the ST Vincent criteria, the Beers criteria, the Thailand criteria, and the three combined criteria was 23.76%, 19.67%, 21.18%, and 25.16%, respectively. The factors associated with PIMHF use were secondary-care hospital (aOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.26−1.87), HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.38−2.38), hypertension (HTN) (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02−1.51), diabetes mellitus (DM) (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10−1.75), chronic pulmonary diseases (CPD) (aOR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.56−2.80), and connective tissue diseases (CTD) (aOR = 5.10, 95% CI: 2.20−11.83).  CONCLUSIONS PIMHF are commonly used in Thai older HF patients. The factors associated with PIMHF use identified in this study include secondary-care hospital, HFpEF, HTN, DM, CPD, and CTD.
Renin-angiotensin system antagonists and mortality due to pneumonia, influenza, and chronic lower respiratory disease in patients with hypertension
Heng-Xuan CAI, Chen-Chen LIANG, Shan-Jie WANG, Jun-Chen GUO, Ye WANG, Bo YU, Xue-Qin GAO, Shao-Hong FANG
2022, 19(7): 511-521. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.003
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 BACKGROUND  It is controversial whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) have a potentially beneficial role in the respiratory system. This study investigated the association between ACEI/ARB medications and respiratory-related mortality in hypertensive patients in a real-world nationally representative cohort.  METHODS  This was a retrospective analysis based on a prospective cohort study. A total of 10,530 patients with hypertension aged ≥ 20 years were included. The data was extracted from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1988–1994 and 1999–2006. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards. Moreover, inform concent was taken form all the participants.  RESULTS Overall, 27.7% (n = 2920) patients took ACEI/ARB agents. During a median follow-up of 12.4 years, 278 individuals died of respiratory disease, including chronic lower respiratory disease (n = 155) and influenza or pneumonia (n = 123). Compared with the patients without ACEI/ARB use, those taking ACEI/ARB were not associated with respiratory-specific mortality in a multivariable-adjusted Cox model. After 1: 1 matching, taking ACEI/ARB was also not related to respiratory mortality (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.79–1.43), influenza- or pneumonia-related (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.65–1.54) and chronic pulmonary mortality (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.75–1.69). After separating ACEI and ARB from anti-hypertensive medications, those associations remained unchanged.  CONCLUSIONS  We discovered no significant link between ACEI or ARB medication and pulmonary-related mortality in hypertensive patients. In hypertensive patients, standard ACEI/ARB administration may have little effect on the respiratory system.
Individual and joint effects of borderline ankle-brachial index and high plasma total homocysteine on all-cause death in hypertensive adults
Jun-Pei LI, Tian-Yu CAO, Xiao-Yuan ZHA, Yun YU, Zi-Heng TAN, Zai-Hua CHENG, Hua-Bo YING, Wei ZHOU, Lin-Juan ZHU, Tao WANG, Li-Shun LIU, Hui-Hui BAO, Xiao HUANG, Xiao-Shu CHENG
2022, 19(7): 522-530. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.008
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 BACKGROUND  The cardiovascular hazards of total homocysteine (tHcy) are long known. In addition, despite the acknowledgment on the importance of low ankle-brachial index (ABI) (< 0.9), borderline ABI (0.91-0.99) was once commonly overlooked. This study aims to explore the independent and joint effect of tHcy level and borderline ABI on all-cause death in hypertensive population.  METHODS This study included 10,538 participants from China H-type Hypertension Registry Study. ABI was described into two groups: normal ABI (1.00-1.40) and borderline ABI. tHcy level was also divided into two groups: < 15.02 and ≥ 15.02 μmo/L. Four groups were analyzed, using COX proportional hazard regression model, separately and pairwise to observe the independent and joint effect on all-cause death.  RESULTS  A total of 126 (1.2%) deaths were observed in the 1.7 years follow-up time. Borderline ABI has a higher predicted risk of death than normal ABI (HR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.17-3.00) after adjusting for potential covariates. Compare with tHcy level < 15.02 μmo/L (low tHcy), those with tHcy ≥ 15.02 μmo/L (high tHcy) had higher risk to event outcome (HR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.30-3.05). According to the cumulative hazard curve, group with borderline ABI and high tHcy level has significantly higher altitude and larger increasing rate over follow-up period compare to other groups. Among those with borderline ABI, participants with high tHcy had higher death risk than those with low tHcy, nevertheless, no significant different between borderline and normal ABI among those with low tHcy levels.  CONCLUSIONS  Borderline ABI and tHcy level both have independent predictive value on all-cause death. The combined group of borderline ABI and high tHcy has highest risk factor of outcomes, which suggested the mutual additive value of borderline ABI and tHcy. More attention should be given to the importance of borderline ABI in hypertensive population, especially with elevated tHcy level.
A novel missense mutation in obscurin gene in a Chinese consanguineous family with left ventricular noncompaction
Xue-Qi DONG, Pei-Pei QIN, Di ZHANG, Qiong-Yu ZHANG, Yi QU, Lin ZHAO, Yi-Ting LU, Yu-Xiao HU, Chun-Xue YANG, Xin-Chang LIU, Ya-Xin LIU, Xian-Liang ZHOU
2022, 19(7): 531-538. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.011
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 BACKGROUND  Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is an increasingly recognised cardiomyopathy of which a significant percentage are genetic in origin. The purpose of the present study was to identify potential pathogenic mutation leading to disease in a Chinese LVNC family. METHODS  A 3-generation family affected by LVNC was recruited. Clinical assessments were performed on available family members, with clinical examination, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac MRI. The proband (I-2), the proband’s daughter (II-1, affected) and mother (III-1, unaffected) were selected for WGS. Sanger sequencing were performed in all of the 4 surviving family members. RESULTS Combined whole genome sequencing with linkage analysis identified a novel missense mutation in the giant protein obscurin (OBSCN NM_001098623, c.C19063T), as the only plausible disease-causing variant that segregates with disease among the four surviving individuals, with interrogation of the entire genome excluding other potential causes. This c.C19063T missense mutation resulted in p.R6355W in the encoded OBSCN protein. It affected a highly conserved residue in the C terminus of the obscurin-B-like isoform between the PH and STKc domains, which was predicted to affect the function of the protein by different bioinformatics tools. CONCLUSIONS Here we present clinical and genetic evidence implicating the novel R6355W missense mutation in obscurin as the cause of familial LVNC. This expands the spectrum of obscurin’s roles in cardiomyopathies. It furthermore highlights that rare obscurin missense variants, currently often ignored or left uninterpreted, should be considered to be relevant for cardiomyopathies and can be identified by the approach presented here. This study also provided new insights into the molecular basis of OBSCN mutation positive LVNC.
Transcatheter interventions for severe tricuspid regurgitation: a literature review
Pramod Kumar Ponna, Stephen Patin, Naga Sai Shravan Turaga, Dominika M Zoltowska, Vishal Devarkonda, Ramya Krishna Botta, Yashwant Agrawal, Gaurav Dhar
2022, 19(7): 539-550. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.010
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The prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) increases with age, affecting 65%-85% of adults. Primary TR is caused by a congenital or acquired abnormality of the tricuspid valve apparatus (leaflets, chordae, papillary muscles, or annulus). Secondary TR is due to insufficient coaptation from dilation of tricuspid valve annulus due to the right ventricle (RV) or right atrium (RA) remodeling and increased RV pressures. Isolated TR is without increased RV pressures and is associated with atrial fibrillation. Mild TR is a benign disease. Moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation has independently been associated with increased mortality. Most of these patients are treated medically due to poor outcomes with surgical repair of isolated TR. The in-hospital mortality rate is 8.8%, and the median length of stay in hospital is 11 days resulting in higher healthcare costs. Even if the patients undergo surgical repair or replacement, available data do not show improvement in survival. With a more detailed understanding of the complex anatomy and physiology of the tricuspid valve and significant complications from untreated tricuspid valve disease, the approach to the management of TR has shifted from a conservative approach to a process of prevention and intervention. In the past decade, transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions and tricuspid annuloplasty rings have been developed, contributing to decreased mortality from surgical repair. Transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention techniques have improved survival, quality of life, and reduced heart failure rehospitalization. This review summarizes normal anatomy, types of TR, etiology and different mechanisms of TR, echocardiographic assessment of the severe TR, and highlights various percutaneous transcatheter techniques for tricuspid valve repair.
Institutional re-evolution of mitral valve procedures
Matteo Ponzoni, Alessandro Fiocco, Raphael Caraffa, Matteo Nadali, Lorenzo Longinotti, Nicola Pradegan, Olimpia Bifulco, Laura Besola, Luca Nai Fovino, Giuseppe Tarantini, Andrea Colli, Gino Gerosa
2022, 19(7): 551-554. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.002
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Isolated right coronary artery bypass grafting via minimally invasive approach in two elderly patients with failed percutaneous coronary intervention
An Shing Ang, Ilias Skaltsiotis, Theodore Kofidis, Hee Hwa Ho
2022, 19(7): 555-558. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.009
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy complicating transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve replacement
Maria Drakopoulou, George Oikonomou, George Latsios, Andreas Synetos, George Benetos, Chrysavgi Simopoulou, Anastasios Apostolos, Stergios Soulaidopoulos, Konstantina Aggeli, Vasilios Lozos, Dimitrios Lymperiadis, Costas Tsioufis, Konstantinos Toutouzas
2022, 19(7): 559-561. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.005
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Transcarotid transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a novel balloon expandable Myval® THV under the local anesthesia
Hüseyin Ayhan, Bilge Duran Karaduman, Telat Keleş, Emrah Uğuz, Emre Boysan, Engin Bozkurt
2022, 19(7): 562-564. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.07.006
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