ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 3

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Risk of conduction disturbances following different transcatheter aortic valve prostheses: the role of aortic valve calcifications
Francesco Pollari, Ferdinand Vogt, Irena Großmann, Jill Marianowicz, Marie Claes, Steffen Pfeiffer, Johannes Schwab, Theodor Fischlein
2022, 19(3): 167-176. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.004
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 OBJECTIVES  To assess the impact of prosthesis choice and aortic valve calcifications on the occurrence of conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS  We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative clinical characteristics, electrocardiograms, contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography scans and procedural strategies of patients who underwent TAVI in our center between January 2012 and June 2017. Quantification of calcium volume was performed for each aortic cusp above (aortic valve) and below (left ventricular outflow tract, LVOT) the basal plane. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate risk factors for the onset of new bundle branch block (BBB), transient and permanent atrioventricular block (tAVB, pAVB). RESULTS  A total of 569 patients were included in the study. Six different prostheses were implanted (Edwards Sapien XT, n = 162; Edwards Sapien 3, n = 240; Medtronic CoreValve, n = 27; Medtronic CoreValve Evolut R, n = 21; Symetis Acurate, n = 56; Symetis Acurate neo, n = 63). The logistic regression analysis for BBB showed association with baseline left anterior hemiblock. The logistic regression for tAVB, found the prior valvuloplasty and the balloon post-dilatation associated with the outcome. Baseline left and right BBB, degree of oversizing, and LVOT calcification beneath the non-coronary cusp were associated with pAVB. Neither the prosthesis model, nor the use of a self-expandable prosthesis showed statistical significance with the above-mentioned outcomes on univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS  LVOT calcification beneath the non-coronary cusp, baseline left anterior hemiblock, right BBB, balloon post-dilatation, prior valvuloplasty and oversizing are independently associated with postprocedural conduction disturbances after TAVI. Use of a self-expandable prosthesis may show a lower incidence of AVB, if applied in lower calcified aortic valves.
Association of time-varying changes in physical activity with cardiac death and all-cause mortality after ICD or CRT-D implantation
Xue-Rong SUN, Chen-Di CHENG, Bin ZHOU, Shuang ZHAO, Ke-Ping CHEN, Wei HUA, Yan-Gang SU, Wei XU, Fang WANG, Xiao-Han FAN, Yan DAI, Zhi-Min LIU, Shu ZHANG
2022, 19(3): 177-188. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.006
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 OBJECTIVE  To evaluate the association of longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA) with long-term outcomes after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation. METHODS Patients with ICD/CRT-D implantation from SUMMIT registry were retrospectively analyzed. Accelerometer-derived PA changes over 12 months post implantation were obtained from the archived home monitoring data. The primary endpoints were cardiac death and all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoints were the first ventricular arrthymia (VA) and first appropriate ICD shock. RESULTS In 705 patients, 446 (63.3%) patients showed improved PA over 12 months after implantation. During a mean 61.5-month follow-up duration, 99 cardiac deaths (14.0%) and 153 all-cause deaths (21.7%) occurred. Compared to reduced/unchanged PA, improved PA over 12 months could result in significantly reduced risks of cardiac death (improved PA ≤ 30 min: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.494, 95% CI: 0.288−0.848; > 30 min: HR = 0.390, 95% CI: 0.235−0.648) and all-cause mortality (improved PA ≤ 30 min: HR = 0.467, 95%CI: 0.299−0.728; > 30 min: HR = 0.451, 95% CI: 0.304−0.669). No differences in the VAs or ICD shocks were observed across different groups of PA changes. PA changes can predict the risks of cardiac death only in the low baseline PA group, but improved PA was associated with 56.7%, 57.4%, and 62.3% reduced risks of all-cause mortality in the low, moderate, and high baseline PA groups, respectively, than reduced/unchanged PA. CONCLUSIONS Improved PA could protect aganist cardiac death and all-cause mortality, probably reflecting better clinical efficacy after ICD/CRT-D implantation. Low-intensity exercise training might be encouraged among patients with different baseline PA levels.
Percutaneous coronary intervention in octogenarians: 10-year experience from a primary percutaneous coronary intervention centre with off-site cardiothoracic support
Joanna Abramik, Amardeep Dastidar, Nestoras Kontogiannis, Victoria North, Gopendu Patri, Nicholas Weight, Tushar Raina, George Kassimis
2022, 19(3): 189-197. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.010
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 OBJECTIVE  To examine the trends in patient characteristics and clinical outcomes over a ten-year period and to analyse the predictors of mortality in octogenarians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our centre.  METHODS  A total of 782 consecutive octogenarians (aged 80 and above) were identified from a prospectively collected PCI database within our non-surgical, medium volume centre between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2016. This represented 10.9% of all PCI procedures performed in our centre during this period. We evaluated the demographic and procedural characteristics of the cohort with respect to clinical outcomes (all-cause in-hospital and 1-year mortality, in-hospital complication rates, duration of hospital admission, coronary disease angiographic complexity and major co-morbidities). The cohort was further stratified into three chronological tertiles (January 2007 to July 2012, 261 cases; August 2012 to May 2015, 261 cases; June 2015 to December 2016, 260 cases) to assess for differences over time. Predictors of mortality were identified through a multivariate regression analysis.  RESULTS  The number of octogenarians undergoing PCI increased nearly ten-fold over the studied period. Despite this, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes or patient characteristics, except for the increased use of trans-radial vascular access [11.9% in first tertile vs. 73.2% in third tertile (P < 0.0001)]. The all-cause in-hospital (5.8% vs. 4.6% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.578) and 1-year mortality (12.4% vs. 12.5% vs. 14.4%, P = 0.746) remained constant in all three tertiles respectively. Six independent predictors of mortality were identified - increasing age [HR = 1.12 (1.03−1.22), P = 0.008], cardiogenic shock [HR = 16.40 (4.04–66.65), P < 0.0001], severe left ventricular impairment [HR = 3.52 (1.69−7.33), P = 0.001], peripheral vascular disease [HR = 2.73 (1.22−6.13), P = 0.015], diabetes [HR = 2.59 (1.30−5.17), P = 0.007] and low creatinine clearance [HR = 0.98 (0.96−1.00), P = 0.031].  CONCLUSION This contemporary observational study provides a useful insight into the real-world practice of PCI in octogenarians.
Mortality in patients with heart failure and suicidal ideation discharged to skilled nursing facilities
Melanie L Bozzay, Lan Jiang, Andrew R Zullo, Melissa R Riester, Jacob A Lafo, Zachary J Kunicki, James L Rudolph, Caroline Madrigal, Rachel Clements, Sebhat Erqou, Wen-Chih Wu, Stephen Correia, Jennifer M Primack
2022, 19(3): 198-208. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.009
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Associations of body mass index and hospital-acquired disability with post-discharge mortality in older patients with acute heart failure
Akihiro Sakuyama, Masakazu Saitoh, Kentaro Hori, Yuichi Adachi, Keigo Iwai, Masatoshi Nagayama
2022, 19(3): 209-217. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.001
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 OBJECTIVES  To investigate the effect of hospital-acquired disability (HAD) on all-cause mortality after discharge according to the body mass index (BMI) in older patients with acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS  We included 408 patients aged ≥ 65 years who were hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure and had undergone an acute phase of cardiac rehabilitation at the Sakakibara Heart Institute between April 2013 and September 2015 (median age: 82 years, interquartile range (IQR): 76–86; 52% male). Patients were divided into three groups based on BMI at hospital admission: underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 to 25 kg/m2), and overweight (≥ 25 kg/m2). HAD was defined as a decrease of at least five points at discharge compared to before hospitalization according to the Barthel Index. RESULTS The median follow-up period was 475 (IQR: 292–730) days, and all-cause mortality during the follow-up period was 84 deaths (21%). According to multivariate Cox regression analysis, being underweight (HR: 1.941, 95% CI: 1.134−3.321, P = 0.016) or overweight (HR: 0.371, 95% CI: 0.171−0.803, P = 0.012), with normal BMI as the reference, and HAD (HR: 1.857, 95% CI: 1.062−3.250, P = 0.030) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Patients with HAD exhibited a significantly lower cumulative survival rate in the underweight group (P = 0.001) and tended to have a lower cumulative survival rate in the normal weight group (P = 0.072). HAD was not significantly associated with cumulative survival in the overweight group (P = 0.392). CONCLUSIONS  BMI and HAD independently predicted all-cause mortality after discharge in older patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Furthermore, HAD was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality after discharge, especially in the underweight group.
Relationship of body fat and left ventricular hypertrophy with the risk of all-cause death in patients with coronary artery disease
Bao-Tao HUANG, Lu YANG, Bo-Sen YANG, Fang-Yang HUANG, Qian-Feng XIAO, Xiao-Bo PU, Yong PENG, Mao CHEN
2022, 19(3): 218-226. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.002
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 BACKGROUND  Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent in obese individuals. Besides, both of LVH and obesity is associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. The study aims to investigate the interplay between body fat and LVH in relation to all-cause death in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS  In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 2243 patients with angiographically proven CAD were included. Body fat and LV mass were calculated using established formulas. Patients were grouped according to body fat percentage and presence or absence of LVH. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to observe the interaction effect of body fat and LVH on all-cause death. RESULTS Of 2243 patients enrolled, 560 (25%) had a higher body fat percentage, and 1045 (46.6%) had LVH. After a median follow-up of 2.2 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 8.2% in the group with higher body fat and LVH, 2.5% in those with lower body fat and no LVH, 5.4% in those with higher body fat and no LVH, and 7.8% in those with lower body fat and LVH (log-rank P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant interaction between body fat percentage and LVH (P interaction was 0.003). After correcting for confounding factors, patients with higher body fat and LVH had the highest risk of all-cause death (HR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.40–8.69, P = 0.007) compared with those with lower body fat and no LVH; in contrast, patients with higher body fat and no LVH had no statistically significant difference in risk of death compared with those with lower body fat and no LVH (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 0.70–5.92, P = 0.195). CONCLUSION A higher body fat percentage was associated with a different risk of all-cause death in patients with CAD, stratified by coexistence of LVH or not. Higher body fat was significantly associated with a greater risk of mortality among patients with LVH but not among those without LVH.
Cognitive impairment and its association with circulating biomarkers in patients with acute decompensated heart failure
Ying-Chang Tung, Fu-Chih Hsiao, Chia-Pin Lin, Wen-Chuin Hsu, Pao-Hsien Chu
2022, 19(3): 227-237. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.005
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 BACKGROUND  Cognitive impairment (CI) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), but the association between CI and biomarkers related to HF or cognitive decline in patients with HF remains unclear.  METHODS This prospective observational study investigated the incidence of CI, subsequent cognitive changes, and the association between CI and novel biomarkers in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% who were hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Patients were evaluated for CI, depressive symptoms, and quality of life with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Mini-Cog, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), respectively. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or hospitalization for HF at one year.  RESULTS  Among the 145 patients enrolled in this study, 54 had CI (37.2%) at baseline. The mean MMSE increased significantly at the 3-month and 1-year follow-up, accompanied by decreased BDI-II and increased KCCQ scores. The improvement in the MMSE scores mainly occurred in patients with CI. Among the biomarkers assayed, only growth/differentiation factor (GDF)-15 > 1621.1 pg/mL was significantly associated with CI (area under the curve = 0.64; P = 0.003). An increase in GDF-15 per 1000 units was associated with an increased risk of the primary endpoint (hazard ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.17–1.73; P < 0.001).  CONCLUSIONS  In patients with HF with CI, cognitive function, depression, and quality of life measures improved at the 3-month and 1-year follow-up. GDF-15 predicted CI with moderate discrimination capacity and was associated with worse HF outcomes.
Caseous calcification of mitral annulus in the setting of multivessel disease
Swetha R Nuthulaganti, Bijal R Patel, Carly A Rabinowitz, Maria Gutierrez, Khadeeja Esmail, Reeba Omman
2022, 19(3): 238-240. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.003
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Severe aortic stenosis and acute coronary syndrome in an elderly patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a therapeutic challenge
Mehmet Rasih Sonsoz, Selin Berk, Hamdi Pusuroglu, Ahmet Guler, Fatih Uzun
2022, 19(3): 241-244. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.008
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COVID-19: cardiovascular manifestations—a review of the cardiac effects
Taha Hatab, Mohamad Bahij Moumneh, Abdul Rahman Akkawi, Mohamad Ghazal, Samir E. Alam, Marwan M. Refaat
2022, 19(3): 245-250. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.03.007
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