ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 2

Cardiogenic shock: approaching the truth
Isaac Llaó, Albert Ariza-Solé
2022, 19(2): 95-97. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.001
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Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic dyssynchrony parameters that might better predict the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy than QRS morphology and duration
András Vereckei
2022, 19(2): 98-100. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.008
Abstract(288) FullText HTML (90) PDF(53)
Lactobacillus levels and prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction
Jing-Jing CAI, Yin LIU, Jie WANG, Jing-Xian WANG, Yuan WANG, Shi-Bo XU, Zhuang CUI, Jing GAO
2022, 19(2): 101-114. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.009
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 OBJECTIVE  To explore the relationship between Lactobacillus and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its correlation with clinical parameters. METHODS  Consecutive patients with AMI in the coronary care unit of Tianjin Chest Hospital in China who received emergency PCI between July 2017 and December 2018 were enrolled. Subjects’ fecal 16S rDNA gene sequencing data were analyzed and subjects were categorized into low, medium and high level groups according to stool Lactobacillus measurements. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between Lactobacillus and prognosis. Spearman correlation analysis and trend tests were used to assess the relationship between Lactobacillus and the clinical indicators. RESULTS  The data of 254 patients were included in the analysis. Mean age was 65.90 ± 11.56 years, and 152 patients (59.84%) were male. Follow-up time was 652 (548.25−753.00) days. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiac events in patients with Lactobacillus > 7.1 copies/g [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.216, 95% CI: 0.094−0.493, P < 0.001] compared to patients with Lactobacillus ≤ 3.6 copies/g. Statistically significant differences were shown in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (HR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.085−0.551, P = 0.001). Lactobacillus was a protective factor for male smokers aged over 60 years whose brain natriuretic peptide was over 1,000 pg/mL. Spearman correlation analysis showed that Lactobacillus correlated negatively with white blood cells, neutrophils, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, TroponinT, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB and brain natriuretic peptide (downward trend), and correlated positively with left ventricular ejection fraction (upward trend). CONCLUSIONS  This study is the first to reveal the correlation between Lactobacillus and inflammation and myocardial damage after STEMI. STEMI patients, especially male smokers aged over 60 years with severe impairment of cardiac function, have better outcomes with high levels of Lactobacillus, suggesting new therapeutic strategies for improving the prognosis and quality of life of AMI patients.
Usefulness of Impella support in different clinical settings in cardiogenic shock
María Isabel Barrionuevo-Sánchez, Albert Ariza-Solé, Daniel Ortiz-Berbel, José González-Costello, Joan Antoni Gómez-Hospital, Victòria Lorente, Oriol Alegre, Isaac Llaó, José Carlos Sánchez-Salado, Josep Gómez-Lara, Arnau Blasco-Lucas, Josep Comin-Colet
2022, 19(2): 115-124. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.003
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 BACKGROUND  The Impella pump has emerged as a promising tool in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). Despite its attractive properties, there are scarce data on the specific clinical setting and the potential role of Impella devices in CS patients from routine clinical practice.  METHODS  This is an observational, retrospective, single center, cohort study. All consecutive patients with diagnosis of CS and undergoing support with Impella 2.5®, Impella CP® or Impella 5.0® from April 2015 to December 2020 were included. Baseline characteristics, management and outcomes were assessed according to CS severity, age and cause of CS. Main outcome measured was in-hospital mortality.  RESULTS  A total of 50 patients were included (median age: 59.3 ± 10 years). The most common cause of CS was acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (68%), followed by decompensation of previous cardiomyopathy (22%). A total of 13 patients (26%) had profound CS. Most patients (54%) improved pulmonary congestion at 48 h after Impella support. A total of 19 patients (38%) presented significant bleeding. In-hospital mortality was 42%. Among patients with profound CS (n = 13), five patients were previously supported with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A total of eight patients (61.5%) died during the admission, and no patient achieved ventricular recovery. Older patients (≥ 67 years, n = 10) had more comorbidities and the highest mortality (70%). Among patients with ACS (n = 34), 35.3% of patients had profound CS; and in most cases (52.9%), Impella support was performed as a bridge to recovery. In contrast, only one patient from the decompensated cardiomyopathy group (n = 11) presented with profound CS. In 90.9% of these cases, Impella support was used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. There were no cases of death.  CONCLUSIONS  In this cohort of real-life CS patients, Impella devices were used in different settings, with different clinical profiles and management. Despite a significant rate of complications, mortality was acceptable and lower than those observed in other series.
Challenges in the conduct of randomised controlled trials in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction
Anne Freund, Steffen Desch, Holger Thiele
2022, 19(2): 125-129. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.002
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Cardiogenic shock (CS) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major challenge in cardiovascular care. Mortality remains high with 40%−50% after thirty days. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) play a key role to generate evidence on optimal care in this field. However, the number of completed or ongoing RCTs is still relatively low compared to the gaps in evidence. Challenges in the conduct of these trials are in particular the selection of patients and ethical issues in the informed consent process. When determining eligibility criteria, special attention should be paid to the severity of CS, to the inclusion of patients with cardiac arrest and to potential age limits. Median age of AMI-CS patients is increasing. Age limits are therefore controversial as it is important to include elderly patients in RCTs in order to make the results generalisable and to address the special needs of this group. As patients with AMI-CS are in most cases unable to provide informed consent themselves, a step-wise approach with acute consent by a legal representative or independent physicians and later informed consent by the patient if possible might be established depending on regularities of the respective ethical review board and country legislation. Multicenter studies should be sought to generate adequate power.
Mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock and post-myocardial infarction mechanical complications
Daniel Rob, Jan Bělohlávek
2022, 19(2): 130-136. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.004
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Despite advanced therapies, the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) remains around 50%. Mechanical complications of MI are rare nowadays but associated with high mortality in patients who present with CS. Different treatment strategies and mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices have been increasingly used to improve the grim prognosis of refractory CS. This article discusses current evidence regarding the use of MCS in MI complicated by CS, ventricular septal rupture, free wall rupture and acute mitral regurgitation. Device selection should be tailored according to the cause and severity of CS. Early MCS initiation and multidisciplinary team cooperation is mandatory for good results. MCS associated bleeding remains a major complication and an obstacle to better outcomes. Ongoing prospective randomized trials will improve current knowledge regarding MCS indications, timing, and patient selection in the coming years.
Fulminant myocarditis in adults: a narrative review
Santiago Montero, Darryl Abrams, Enrico Ammirati, Florent Huang, Dirk W. Donker, Guillaume Hekimian, Cosme García-García, Antoni Bayes-Genis, Alain Combes, Matthieu Schmidt
2022, 19(2): 137-151. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.006
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Fulminant myocarditis (FM) is an uncommon syndrome characterized by sudden and severe hemodynamic compromise secondary to acute myocardial inflammation, often presenting as profound cardiogenic shock, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and/or electrical storm. FM may be refractory to conventional therapies and require mechanical circulatory support (MCS). The immune system has been recognized as playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of myocarditis, leading to an increased focus on immunosuppressive treatment strategies. Recent data have highlighted not only the fact that FM has significantly worse outcomes than non-FM, but that prognosis and management strategies of FM are heavily dependent on histological subtype, placing greater emphasis on the role of endomyocardial biopsy in diagnosis. The impact of subtype on severity and prognosis will likewise influence how aggressively the myocarditis is managed, including whether MCS is warranted. Many patients with refractory cardiogenic shock secondary to FM end up requiring MCS, with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation demonstrating favorable survival rates, particularly when initiated prior to the development of multiorgan failure. Among the challenges facing the field are the need to more precisely identify immunopathophysiological pathways in order to develop targeted therapies, and the need to better optimize the timing and management of MCS to minimize complications and maximize outcomes.
Cardiogenic shock due to left main related myocardial infarction: is revascularization enough?
Francisco Galván-Román, Elena Puerto, Roberto Martín-Asenjo, Albert Ariza-Solé
2022, 19(2): 152-157. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.005
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Translational proteomics in cardiogenic shock: from benchmark to bedside
Oriol Iborra-Egea, Antoni Bayes-Genis
2022, 19(2): 158-162. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.007
Abstract(217) FullText HTML (78) PDF(38)
The characteristic and dynamic electrocardiogram changes on hyperkalemia in a hemodialysis patient with heart failure: a case report
Rui ZHAO, Xin HAO, Fei WANG, Jing FENG, Jing PAN, Ce JING, Ming-Ren MA, Yan LIU, Ling MA, Xiao-Qing CAI
2022, 19(2): 163-166. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.02.010
Abstract(367) FullText HTML (147) PDF(93)