ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 11

Screening for hypertension-mediated organ damage and aetiology: still of value after 65 years of age?
Delphine Thiolliere, Brahim Harbaoui, Claire Falandry, Marc Bonnefoy, Jean-Christophe Lega, Pierre Lantelme, Pierre-Yves Courand
2022, 19(11): 791-801. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.005
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 BACKGROUND  Secondary forms and hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) may differ between younger and older hypertensive patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the specificity of HMOD and secondary forms in patients ≥ 65 years in comparison to younger ones in a contemporary cohort.  METHODS  We analysed 938 patients recruited between 2004 and 2014 (Cardiology department, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Lyon) who had at baseline HMOD and secondary forms screening among them 190 were ≥ 65 years.  RESULTS  The mean (2.1 ± 0.8 vs. 1.2 ± 0.9, P < 0.001) and frequency of HMOD (96.3% vs. 72.9%, P < 0.001) was higher in patients ≥ 65 years than younger ones. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity > 10 m/s was the most frequent HMOD in patients ≥ 65 years (90.1%), while echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy was the most common in the younger patients (45.0%). Among ECG left ventricular indexes, only R wave in aVL lead was significantly more frequently observed in patients ≥ 65 years (32.6%) than in younger ones (19.0%, P < 0.001). The frequency of secondary hypertension was not significantly different between younger and older patients (respectively; 30.5% vs. 27.8%, P = 0.487). The most frequent aetiology was primary aldosteronism regardless of age, followed by renovascular hypertension (6.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.038). Among older patients, 3.2% were treated with adrenalectomy and 6.3% with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty.  CONCLUSION  Extensive screening of HMOD in older patients may be questionable as nearly all patients had one; aetiology must however be explored as a third of older patients had a secondary form.
Effectiveness of sacubitril-varsartan versus angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure: a retrospective cohort study of the RICA registry
Llanos Soler-Rangel, Manuel Méndez-Bailón, José Pérez-Silvestre, José María Fernández-Rodríguez, Beatriz Cuesta García, Adrián Argüelles-Curto, Álvaro González-Franco, Alicia Conde-Martel, Sara Carrascosa-García, Marta Sánchez-Marteles, José Manuel Cerqueiro-González, Noel Lorenzo-Villalba, Manuel Montero-Pérez-Barquero
2022, 19(11): 802-810. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.010
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 BACKGROUND  Sacubitril-valsartan has been shown to reduce hospitalizations and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. The PIONEER-HF trial demonstrated that initiation of the drug during acute HF hospitalization reduced NT-proBNP levels and a post-hoc analysis of the trial found a reduction in HF hospitalizations and deaths. Real-life studies in the elderly population are scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan versus angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) in elderly patients who initiate this treatment during hospitalization for acute HF.  METHODS  We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Spanish acute heart failure registry (RICA) comparing rehospitalizations and deaths at 3 months and 1 year among patients aged 70 years or older who had initiated treatment with sacubitril-valsartan during hospitalization for acute HF versus those treated with ACEI.  RESULTS  One hundred and ninety-nine patients hospitalized between October 2016 and November 2020 were included, with a median age of 82 years and high rate of comorbidity. Of these, 107 were treated with sacubitril-valsartan and 92 with ACEI. The adjusted OR for readmission for HF at 3 months was 0.906 (95% CI: 0.241–3.404) and for the combined variable readmission for HF or death at 3 months was 0.696 (95% CI: 0.224–2.167). The adjusted OR for HF readmission at one year was 0.696 (95% CI: 0.224 –2.167). and for the combined variable HF readmission or death at one year 0.724 (95% CI: 0.325–1.612).  CONCLUSION  Treatment with sacubitril-valsartan initiated early in hospitalization for HF in elderly patients with high comorbidity was associated with a trend towards a reduction in readmissions and death due to HF compared to treatment with ACEI, which did not reach statistical significance either at 3 months or 1 year of follow-up.
Systemic inflammatory markers in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement
Haitham Abu Khadija, Mechael Welt, Gera Gendelman, Ahamd Hamode, Lion Poles, Michael Jonas, Mustafa Jaber, Gal Sella, Omar Ayyad, Sagi Tshori, Alex Blatt, Jacob George
2022, 19(11): 811-821. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.009
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 BACKGROUND  Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) provokes an early injury response, partially represented by dynamic changes in inflammatory markers. TAVR greatly benefits the elderly and we aimed to determine whether increased inflammatory markers post-TAVR in octagenerians were different than their younger counterparts and whether it was associated with adverse clinical outcomes.  METHODS  Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVR from January 2010 to December 2021 were enrolled. Total white blood cells (WBC) count and subpopulation dynamics were evaluated.  RESULTS  Five-hundred and seven patients were finally included in the study, 65% of these patients were 80 or more years old (54% female, median age 84 [82-87]) years, with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. In patients aged above 80 years (patients ≥ 80), we noticed significant kinetic changes in the WBC and their differential cellular subpopulations (P < 0.0001) between admission and early days post-procedure. This was evident by a significant increase in total WBC (median 7.1 to 9.4) and absolute neutrophil count (median 4.7 to 7.4), neutrophil–lymphocyte (NL) ratio (median 2.82 to 7.21), and a meaningful decrease in absolute lymphocyte count (median 1.5 to 1.0). Implantation of self-expandable valves (SEVs) was associated with a more pronounced inflammatory response than balloon-expandable valves (BEVs). Higher WBC and neutrophil counts were associated with higher mortality and major vascular complications at 30 days, in addition, higher neutrophil counts and NL ratios were found to be correlated to arrhythmia at 30 days with P values of 0.04 and 0.028, respectively.  CONCLUSION  This is the first description of a differential age-related inflammatory response in patients after TAVR, which shows an association between inflammatory markers post procedure and clinical outcome. Nevertheless, survival rates were similar in the elderly population and in younger patients, despite the presence of comorbid conditions.
Cost-utility analysis of transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgery in severe aortic stenosis patients with intermediate surgical risk in Thailand
Unchalee Permsuwan, Voratima Yoodee, Wacin Buddhari, Nattawut Wongpraparut, Tasalak Thonghong, Sirichai Cheewatanakornkul, Krissada Meemook, Pranya Sakiyalak, Pongsanae Duangpakdee, Jirawit Yadee
2022, 19(11): 822-832. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.007
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 BACKGROUND  Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) has been shown to provide comparable survival benefit and improvement in quality of life to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for treating patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at intermediate surgical risk. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-utility of TAVI compared with SAVR for severe aortic stenosis with intermediate surgical risk in Thailand.  METHODS  A two-part constructed model was used to analyze lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from societal and healthcare perspectives. The study cohort comprised severe AS patients at intermediate surgical risk with an average age of 80 years. The landmark trials were used to populate the model in terms of mortality and adverse event rates. All cost-related data and quality of life were based on Thai population. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually and presented as 2021 values. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted.  RESULTS  In comparison to SAVR, TAVI resulted in higher total cost (THB 1,717,132 [USD 52,415.51] vs. THB 893,524 [USD 27,274.84]) and higher QALYs (4.88 vs. 3.98) in a societal perspective. The estimated ICER was THB 906,937/QALY (USD 27,684.27/QALY). From a healthcare system perspective, TAVI also had higher total cost than SAVR (THB 1,573,751 [USD 48,038.79] vs. THB 726,342 [USD 22,171.63]) with similar QALYs gained to the societal perspective. The estimated ICER was THB 933,145/QALY (USD 933,145/QALY). TAVI was not cost-effective at the Thai willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of THB 160,000/QALY (USD 4,884/QALY). The results were sensitive to utility of either SAVR or TAVI treatment and cost of TAVI valve.  CONCLUSION  In patients with severe AS at intermediate surgical risk, TAVI is not a cost-effective strategy compared with SAVR at the WTP of THB 160,000/QALY (USD 4,884/QALY) from the perspectives of society and healthcare system.
The relationship between serum miR-21 levels and left atrium dilation in elderly patients with essential hypertension
Yan WANG, Guang-Ping FU, Qiu-Yan WANG, Ting-Ting ZHANG, Li-Li HE, Qing-Juan ZUO, Chang-Lei ZHANG, Yi-Fang GUO
2022, 19(11): 833-842. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.011
 BACKGROUND  MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is related to hypertension and cardiac remodelling. Left atrium (LA) dilation is highly sensitive to small haemodynamic changes in the left ventricle (LV) that are induced by hypertension. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between miR-21 expression and LA dilation in elderly patients with essential hypertension (EH).  METHODS  In this cross-sectional study, one hundred elderly patients with EH were recruited for the study. According to their left atrium diameters (LADs), the patients were divided into the LA dilation group [42 patients (42%)] and the no-LA dilation group [58 patients (58%)]. The serum levels of miR-21 and chemical biomarkers used in the clinic, such as creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Lp(a), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and apolipoprotein B, were measured. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination, and the LAD, interventricular septum (IVS), right atrium diameter (RAD), right ventricle diameter (RVD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured.  RESULTS The levels of miR-21 [8.02 (5.21, 14.39) vs. 6.05 (3.81, 8.95), P = 0.011] and LVEF (67.02 ± 3.82 vs. 64.14 ± 4.43, P = 0.001) were higher in the LA dilation group. The levels of creatinine [70.40 (64.45, 80.15) vs. 63.9(60.1, 73.43)], P = 0.020] were higher in the no-LA dilation group. The levels of HDLC (r = – 0.209, P = 0.037), apoA1 (r = –0.269, P = 0.007) and RAD (r = 0.203, P = 0.043) were significantly correlated with miR-21 expression. The LAD was significantly correlated with the RAD (r = 0.287, P = 0.004), RVD (r = 0.450, P < 0.001), LVEDD (r = 0.248, P = 0.013) and LVEF (r = 0.232, P = 0.020). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that miR-21 significantly influenced LA dilation in elderly patients with EH (P < 0.05).  CONCLUSIONS Circulating serum levels of miR-21 are increased in elderly patients with EH with LA dilation. miR-21 levels are significantly correlated with LA dilation in elderly patients with EH, and miR-21 may be a factor related to the clinical pathophysiological occurrence of and treatment for the progression of hypertension-related early heart damage in EH patients.
Validating the accuracy of a multifunctional smartwatch sphygmomanometer to monitor blood pressure
Li YI, Zhong-Hua LV, Shun-Ying HU, Yu-Qi LIU, Jia-Bing YAN, Hui Zhang, Hong-Bao LI, Qin CHEN, Yue-Yang LI, Yu-Fan JIANG, Hao ZHOU, Mu-Ding LI, Run-Du CHEN, Xiao-Long LI, Shan-Shan ZHOU, Yun-Dai CHEN
2022, 19(11): 843-852. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.004
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 BACKGROUND  Hypertension is the most modifiable factor associated with cardiovascular events and complications. The conventional blood pressure (BP) meter method is simple but is limited in terms of real-time monitoring abnormal BP. Therefore, the development of a multifunction smartwatch (HUAWEI WATCH D) sphygmomanometer could significantly improve integrated BP monitoring.  METHODS We enrolled 361 subjects from Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China to validate the accuracy of the smartwatch versatile sphygmomanometer using ISO 81060-2:2018. Resting and ambulatory BP accuracy of the smartwatch were compared with gold standard clinical sphygmomanometers using ISO 81060-2:2018 guidelines, the accuracy of 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) circadian rhythm monitoring, and diurnal high SBP alert for this smartwatch were assessed using a confusion matrix approach. Additionally, we analyzed online users of different ages for compliance.  RESULTS  Eighty-five subjects underwent resting BP measurements; the mean resting BP differences between two devices were −0.683 ± 6.203 mmHg (SBP) (P = 0.723) and 1.628 ± 5.028 mmHg (diastolic blood pressure, DBP) (P = 0.183). In 35 subjects’ ambulatory BP measurements, the mean differences of ambulatory BP were −1.943 ± 5.475 mmHg (SBP) (P = 0.923) and 3.195 ± 5.862 mmHg (DBP) (P = 0.065). All data complied with ISO 81060-2:2018 guidelines (mean ≤ ±5 mmHg and standard deviation ≤ ±8 mmHg) with no significant differences. Positive predictive values (PPV) of resting SBP and DBP were 0.635 and 0.671, respectively. The PPV of ambulatory SBP and DBP were 0.686. Also, 24 h SBP circadian rhythm monitoring was performed in 107 subjects: accuracy = 0.850, specificity = 0.864, precision/PPV = 0.833, sensitivity = 0.833, and F1-measure (F1) = 0.833. The accuracy, specificity, precision, sensitivity, and F1 values in 85 subjects undergoing diurnal high SBP alerting were 0.858, 0.876, 0.706, 0.809, and 0.754, respectively.  CONCLUSIONS When compared with the gold standard clinical sphygmomanometer, smartwatch results were consistent and accurate. Online user feedback showed that elderly individuals cared more about BP monitoring accuracy, with better compliance.
Small-molecule 7,8-dihydroxyflavone counteracts compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy via AMPK activation
Peng-Zhou HANG, Pei-Feng LI, Jie LIU, Feng-Feng LI, Ting-Ting CHEN, Yang PAN, Man-Ru ZHANG, Hua-Qing YU, Hong-Yu JI, Zhi-Min DU, Jing ZHAO
2022, 19(11): 853-866. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.002
 BACKGROUND  Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a compensated response to various stimuli and is considered a key risk factor for heart failure. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a flavonoid derivative that acts as a small-molecule brain-derived neurotrophic factor mimetic. The present study aimed to explore the potential role of 7,8-DHF in cardiac hypertrophy.  METHODS  Kunming mice and H9c2 cells were exposed to transverse aortic constriction or isoproterenol (ISO) with or without 7,8-DHF, respectively. F-actin staining was performed to calculate the cell area. Transcriptional levels of hypertrophic markers, including ANP, BNP, and β-MHC, were detected. Echocardiography, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the cardiac function, histology, and ultrastructure of ventricles. Protein levels of mitochondria-related factors, such as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), were detected.  RESULTS 7,8-DHF inhibited compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy, diminished the cross-sectional area, and alleviated the mitochondrial disorders of cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, 7,8-DHF reduced the cell size and repressed the mRNA levels of the hypertrophic markers of ISO-treated cardiomyocytes. In addition, 7,8-DHF activated AMPK and PGC-1α signals without affecting the protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics-related molecules. The effects of 7,8-DHF were eliminanted by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor.  CONCLUSIONS  These findings suggest that 7,8-DHF inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction by activating AMPK signaling, providing a potential agent for the treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
Methodology in coronary artery bypass surgery quality assessment
Zhongmin Li, Nicole Shirakawa, Amy Chen, Fu-Hai Ji, Hong Liu
2022, 19(11): 867-875. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.006
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Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is associated with a high risk of mortality and morbidity; thus, assessment of surgery quality is necessary. In this perspective, we will focus on the structure, process, and outcomes measured as quality assessment. A set of 21 evidence-based structure, process, and outcome measures were selected as National Quality Forum. Of these, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons ultimately chose 11 individual quality measures grouped them into four domains used to assess the quality of CABGs. These four domains consisted of perioperative medical care, operative care, risk-adjusted operative mortality and postoperative risk-adjusted major morbidity. These measures have been useful as quality improvement tools in assessing the quality of CABG surgery.
Device-based neuromodulation for cardiovascular diseases and patient’ s age
Evgeny N Mikhaylov, Nigar Z Gasimova, Natalia N Belyaeva, Heber Ivan Condori Leandro, Aleksandr D Vakhrushev, Evgeny V Shlyakhto
2022, 19(11): 876-893. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.003
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The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. With aging, autonomic activity changes, and this impacts the physiological reactions to internal and external signals. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic responses seem to decline, reflecting functional and structural changes in nervous regulation. Although some investigators suggested that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were suppressed, others found that only the parasympathetic activity was suppressed while the sympathetic activity increased. In addition, cardiac innervation progressively diminishes with aging. Therefore, one may suggest that neuromodulation interventions may have different effects, and older age groups can express an attenuated response. This article aims to discuss the effect of device-based neuromodulation in different cardiovascular diseases, depending on the patient’s age. Thus, we cover renal denervation, pulmonary artery denervation, baroreceptor activation therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, ganglionated plexi ablation for the management of arterial and pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, angina and arrhythmias. The results of many clinical studies appeared to be unconvincing. In view of the low rate of positive findings in clinical studies incorporating neuromodulation approaches, we suggest the underestimation of advanced age as a potential contributing factor to poorer response. Analysis of outcomes between different age groups in clinical trials may shed more light on the true effects of neuromodulation when neutral/ambiguous results are obtained.
Review on the management of cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly
Magali González-Colaço Harmand, María del Mar García-Sanz, Antònia Agustí, Pablo César Prada-Arrondo, Alberto Domínguez-Rodríguez, Beatriz Grandal-Leirós, David Peña-Otero, Natalia Negrín-Mena, Jesús Javier López-Hernández, Pablo Díez-Villanueva
2022, 19(11): 894-927. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.008
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Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are very prevalent in the elderly population and in addition to predisposing to cardiovascular disease they are related to functional decline, which limits the quality of life in this population. The objective of this work is to offer a review of the current evidence in the management of CVRF in the elderly population. The search strategy was executed in PubMed, and Embase, to search for clinical trials, observational cohort or cross-sectional studies, reviews, and clinical practice guidelines focused or including elderly population. The results provided were refined after reading the title and abstract, as well as elimination of duplicates, and were finally identified and assessed following the GRADE methodology. A total of 136 studies were obtained for all predefined risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity and metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and alcohol. We described the results of the studies identified and assessed according to their methodological quality in different recommendation sections: diagnostic and prevention, intervention, or treatment in the elderly population. As the main limitation to the results of this review, there is the lack of quality studies whose target population is elderly patients. This issue limits the recommendations that can be made in this population. Due to this reason, comprehensive geriatric assessment seems the best tool currently available to implement the most appropriate treatment plans based on the baseline situation and comorbidity of each elderly patient.
Migration of intra-aortic balloon pump causing obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery
Sharan Malkani, Jose Ruiz, Smruti Desai, Smit Paghdar, Parag C. Patel, Juan Carlos Leoni Moreno, Melissa Lyle, Maedeh Ganji, Daniel Yip, Rohan M. Goswami
2022, 19(11): 928-929. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.001
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Observation of performance measures of STEMI in elderly after implementation of an updated protocol: results from a single center without coronary interventions
Miguel Rodríguez-Ramos
2022, 19(11): 930-936. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.11.012