ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2022 Vol. 19, No. 1

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Atrial fibrillation in older adults with cancer
Manish Kumar, Nerea Lopetegui-Lia, Christina Al Malouf, Mansour Almnajam, Patrick P. Coll, Agnes S. Kim
2022, 19(1): 1-8. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.001
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Cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF) are common co-morbid conditions in older adults. Both cancer and cancer treatment increase the risk of developing new AF which increases morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and rhythm control along with anticoagulation therapy remain the mainstay of treatment of AF in older adults with both cancer and AF. Adjustments to the treatment may be necessary because of drug interactions with concurrent chemotherapy. Cancer and old age increase the risk of both, thromboembolism and bleeding. The risk of these complications is further enhanced by concomitant cancer therapy, frailty, poor nutrition status and, coexisting geriatric syndromes. Therefore, careful attention needs to be given to the risks and benefits of using anticoagulant medications. This review focuses on the management of AF in older patients with cancer, including at the end-of-life care.
Vectorcardiographic QRS area as a predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy
Mohammed A Ghossein, Antonius MW van Stipdonk, Frits W Prinzen, Kevin Vernooy
2022, 19(1): 9-20. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.003
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a good treatment for heart failure accompanied by ventricular conduction abnormalities. Current ECG criteria in international guidelines seem to be suboptimal to select heart failure patients for CRT. The criteria QRS duration and left bundle branch block (LBBB) QRS morphology insufficiently detect left ventricular activation delay, which is required for benefit from CRT. Additionally, there are various definitions for LBBB, in which each one has a different association with CRT benefit and is prone to subjective interpretation. Recent studies have shown that the objectively measured vectorcardiographic QRS area identifies left ventricular activation delay with higher accuracy than any of the current ECG criteria. Indeed, various studies have consistently shown that a high QRS area prior to CRT predicts both echocardiographic and clinical improvement after CRT. The beneficial relation of QRS area with CRT-outcome was largely independent from QRS morphology, QRS duration, and patient characteristics known to affect CRT-outcome including ischemic etiology and sex. On top of QRS area prior to CRT, the reduction in QRS area after CRT further improves benefit. QRS area is easily obtainable from a standard 12-lead ECG though it currently requires off-line analysis. Clinical applicability will be significantly improved when QRS area is automatically determined by ECG equipment.
Electrocardiographic markers of cardiac resynchronization therapy response: delayed time to intrinsicoid deflection onset in lateral leads
Rubén KA Tapia-Orihuela, S Michael Gharacholou, Samuel J Asirvatham, Freddy Del-Carpio Munoz
2022, 19(1): 21-30. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.009
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has emerged as an important intervention for patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction and delayed ventricular activation. In these patients, CRT has demonstrated to improve quality of life, promote reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, reduce HF hospitalizations, and extend survival. However, despite advancements in our understanding of CRT, a significant number of patients do not respond to this therapy. Several invasive and non-invasive parameters have been assessed to predict response to CRT, but the electrocardiogram (ECG) has remained as the prevailing screening method albeit with limitations. Ideally, an accurate, simple, and reproducible ECG marker or set of markers would dramatically overcome the current limitations. We describe the clinical utility of an old ECG parameter that can estimate ventricular activation delay: the onset to intrinsicoid deflection (ID). Based on the concept of direct measurement of ventricular activation time (intrinsic deflection onset), time to ID onset measures on the surface ECG the time that the electrical activation time takes to reach the area subtended by the corresponding surface ECG lead. Based on this principle, the time to ID on the lateral leads can estimate the delay activation to the lateral LV wall and can be used as a predictor for CRT response, particularly in patients with non-specific intraventricular conduction delay or in patients with left bundle branch block and QRS < 150 ms. The aim of this review is to present the current evidence and potential use of this ECG parameter to estimate LV activation and predict CRT response.
Novel electrocardiographic dyssynchrony criteria that may improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy
Gábor Katona, András Vereckei
2022, 19(1): 31-43. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.006
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an evidence-based effective therapy of symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction refractory to optimal medical treatment associated with intraventricular conduction disturbance, that results in electrical dyssynchrony and further deterioration of systolic ventricular function. However, the non-response rate to CRT is still 20%−40%, which can be decreased by better patient selection. The main determinant of CRT outcome is the presence or absence of significant ventricular dyssynchrony and the ability of the applied CRT technique to eliminate it. The current guidelines recommend the determination of QRS morphology and QRS duration and the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction for patient selection for CRT. However, QRS morphology and QRS duration are not perfect indicators of electrical dyssynchrony, which is the cause of the not negligible non-response rate to CRT and the missed CRT implantation in a significant number of patients who have the appropriate substrate for CRT. Using imaging modalities, many ventricular dyssynchrony criteria were devised for the detection of mechanical dyssynchrony, but their utility in patient selection for CRT is not yet proven, therefore their use is not recommended for this purpose. Moreover, CRT can eliminate only mechanical dyssynchrony due to underlying electrical dyssynchrony, for this reason ECG has a greater role in the detection of ventricular dyssynchrony than imaging modalities. To improve assessment of electrical dyssynchrony, we devised two novel ECG dyssynchrony criteria, which can estimate interventricular and left ventricular intraventricular dyssynchrony in order to improve patient selection for CRT. Here we discuss the results achieved by the application of these new ECG dyssynchrony criteria, which proved to be useful in predicting the CRT response in patients with nonspecific intraventricular conduction disturbance pattern (the second greatest group of CRT candidates), and the significance of other new ECG dyssynchrony criteria in the potential improvement of CRT outcome.
Evolving concept of dyssynchrony and its utility
Priyanka Satish, Bharat Narasimhan, Andreas Hagendorff, Bhupendar Tayal
2022, 19(1): 44-51. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.010
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The role of electromechanical dyssynchrony in heart failure gained prominence in literature with the results of trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). CRT has shown to significantly decrease heart failure hospitalization and mortality in heart failure patients with dyssynchrony. Current guidelines recommend the use of electrical dyssynchrony based on a QRS > 150 ms and a left bundle branch block pattern on surface electrocardiogram to identify dyssynchrony in patients who will benefit from CRT implantation. However, predicting response to CRT remains a challenge with nearly one-third of patients gaining no benefit from the device. Multiple echocardiographic measures of mechanical dyssynchrony have been studied over the past two decade. However, trials where mechanical dyssynchrony used as an additional or lone criteria for CRT failed to show any benefit in the response to CRT. This shows that a deeper understanding of cardiac mechanics should be applied in the assessment of dyssynchrony. This review discusses the evolving role of imaging techniques in assessing cardiac dyssynchrony and their application in patients considered for device therapy.
Alcohol consumption in relation to the incidence of atrial fibrillation in an elderly Chinese population
Xiao-Fei YE, Wei ZHANG, Yi CHEN, Chao-Ying MIAO, Qi-Fang HUANG, Chang-Sheng SHENG, Shuai SHAO, Dian WANG, Shao-Kun XU, Lei LEI, Di ZHANG, Yi-Lin CHEN, Lei-Xiao HU, Jia-Hui XIA, Yi-Bang CHENG, Ying WANG, Qian-Hui GUO, Yan LI, Nicole Lowres, Ben Freedman, Ji-Guang WANG
2022, 19(1): 52-60. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.005
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 BACKGROUND  Alcohol consumption is a known modifiable risk factor for atrial fibrillation. The association, however, might differ according to gender. We investigated gender-specific associations between alcohol consumption and incident atrial fibrillation in an elderly Chinese population. METHODS  Our study participants were elderly residents (≥ 65 years) recruited from five community health centers in the urban area of Shanghai (n = 6,618). Alcohol intake was classified as never drinkers and current light-to-moderate (< 40 g/day) and heavy drinkers (≥ 40 g/day). Atrial fibrillation was detected by a 30-s single-lead electrocardiography (ECG, AliveCor® Heart Monitor) and further evaluated with a regular 12-lead ECG. RESULTS  During a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range: 2.0−2.2) follow-up, the incidence rate of atrial fibrillation was 1.10% in all study participants. It was slightly but non-significantly higher in men (n = 2849) than women (n = 3769, 1.30% vs. 0.96%, P = 0.19) and in current drinkers (n = 793) than never drinkers (n = 5825, 1.64% vs. 1.03%, P = 0.12). In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, there was interaction between sex and current alcohol intake in relation to the incidence of atrial fibrillation (P < 0.0001). After adjustment for confounding factors, current drinkers had a significantly higher incidence rate of atrial fibrillation than never drinkers in women (12.96% [7/54] vs. 0.78% [29/3715], adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 10.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.54−29.67, P < 0.0001), but not in men (0.81% [6/739] vs. 1.47% [31/2110], OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.25−1.51, P = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS  Our study showed a significant association between alcohol intake and the incidence of atrial fibrillation in elderly Chinese women, but not men.
Assessment of causal direction between thyroid function and cardiometabolic health: a Mendelian randomization study
Jing-Jia WANG, Zhen-Huang ZHUANG, Can-Qing YU, Wen-Yao WANG, Wen-Xiu WANG, Kuo ZHANG, Xiang-Bin MENG, Jun GAO, Jian TIAN, Ji-Lin ZHENG, Jie YANG, Tao HUANG, Chun-Li SHAO, Yi-Da TANG
2022, 19(1): 61-70. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.004
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 BACKGROUND  Growing evidence have demonstrated that thyroid hormones have been involved in the processes of cardiovascular metabolism. However, the causal relationship of thyroid function and cardiometabolic health remains partly unknown. METHODS  The Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to test genetic, potentially causal relationships between instrumental variables and cardiometabolic traits. Genetic variants of free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels within the reference range were used as instrumental variables. Data for genetic associations with cardiometabolic diseases were acquired from the genome-wide association studies of the FinnGen, CARDIoGRAM and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D, CHARGE, and MEGASTROKE. This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Association between thyroid function and essential hypertension (EHTN), secondary hypertension (SHTN), hyperlipidemia (HPL), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), pulmonary heart disease (PHD), stroke, and non-rheumatic valve disease (NRVD) were examined. RESULTS  Genetically predicted FT4 levels were associated with SHTN (odds ratio = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.04−0.82, P = 0.027), HPL (odds ratio = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.18−0.88, P = 0.023), T2DM (odds ratio = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.42−0.86, P = 0.005), IHD (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.49−0.98, P = 0.039), NRVD (odds ratio = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.27−0.97, P = 0.039). Additionally, genetically predicted TSH levels were associated with HF (odds ratio = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68−0.99, P = 0.042), PHD (odds ratio = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.32−0.82, P = 0.006), stroke (odds ratio = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.81−0.97, P = 0.007). However, genetically predicted thyroid function traits were not associated with EHTN and MI. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests FT4 and TSH are associated with cardiometabolic diseases, underscoring the importance of the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis in cardiometabolic health susceptibility.
The L-shaped association between superoxide dismutase levels and blood pressure in older Chinese adults: community-based, cross-sectional study
Ying HUANG, Wei LAI, Hong CHEN, Qi-Fan LIU, Ju-Xiang LI, Jin-Zhu HU
2022, 19(1): 71-82. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.002
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 BACKGROUND  As an antioxidant, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been found to be associated with hypertension. METHODS  The data were derived from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), a prospective cohort study in China. We explored the association between serum SOD and blood pressure (BP) using multivariable correction analysis in an older Chinese population. RESULTS  We observed a significantly gradual downward trend in the association between serum SOD levels and diastolic BP (DBP) in participants with lower serum SOD levels (< 58 IU/mL), while no associations were observed between serum SOD levels and DBP in participants with higher serum SOD levels (> 58 IU/mL). Similar results showed a significant gradual downward trend in associations between serum SOD levels and the risk of diastolic hypertension only at SOD < 58 IU/mL. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that serum SOD was negatively correlated with DBP (Sβ = —0.088, P < 0.001) but not with SBP (Sβ = 0.013, P = 0.607). Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that serum SOD was independently associated with the risk of diastolic hypertension (OR = 0.984, 95% CI: 0.973−0.996, P = 0.010) but not with the risk of systolic hypertension (OR = 1.001, 95% CI: 0.990−1.012, P = 0.836)) after adjusting for relevant confounding factors. Serum SOD levels (< 58 IU/mL, > 58 IU/mL) were an effect modifier of the association between serum SOD and DBP (interaction P = 0.0038) or the risk of diastolic hypertension (interaction P = 0.0050). CONCLUSIONS  Our study indicated for the first time that there was an L-shaped association between serum SOD levels and the risk of diastolic hypertension in the older Chinese population.
Light chain cardiac amyloidosis in a nonagenarian
Koji Takahashi, Mina Yamashita, Tomoki Sakaue, Daijiro Enomoto, Shigeki Uemura, Takafumi Okura, Shuntaro Ikeda, Takanori Senba, Akira Saijo, Nobuhisa Yamamura, Sohei Kitazawa
2022, 19(1): 83-89. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.008
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Transcatheter mitral valve repair in nonagenarians
Pedro Luis Cepas-Guillén, Isaac Pascual, Eulogio Garcia, Pilar Jimenez-Quevedo, Alfonso Jurado-Roman, Tomás Benito-González, Rodrigo Estevez-Loureiro, Pedro Li, Dabit Arzamendi, Bruno Melica, Eduardo Infante de Oliveira, Pedro Martín Lorenzo, Felipe Fernández-Vázquez, Guillermo Galeote, Luis Nombela-Franco, Leire Unzue, Pablo Avanzas, Manel Sabate, Xavier Freixa
2022, 19(1): 90-94. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.01.007
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