ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2021 Vol. 18, No. 10

Impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on major clinical events and safety outcomes in heart failure patients: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
George Bazoukis, Stamatis S. Papadatos, Costas Thomopoulos, Gary Tse, Stefanos Cheilidis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Dimitrios Farmakis
2021, 18(10): 783-795. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.003
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 BACKGROUND Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) and renal adverse events in patients with diabetes mellitus, heart failure (HF) and/or chronic kidney disease. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the impact of several different SGLT2i on all-cause mortality, CV mortality, HF hospitalizations and the combined outcome CV death/HF hospitalization in HF patients across the spectrum of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) phenotypes. METHODS A systematic search in MEDLINE database and Cochrane library through March 2021 was performed without limitations. Randomized clinical trials that provided data about the impact of SGLT2i on all-cause mortality, CV mortality, HF hospitalizations or the combined outcome of CV death/HF hospitalization in HF patients were included. A random effects model was used for calculating the effect estimates. RESULTS Nine studies (n = 16,723 patients, mean age: 65.9 years, males: 70.7%) were included in the quantitative synthesis. Compared to placebo, SGLT2i use was associated with 14% lower risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.78−0.94, I2 = 0, P = 0.0008], 32% lower risk of HF hospitalizations (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.62−0.74, I2 = 0, P < 0.001), 14% lower risk of CV mortality (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77−0.95, I2 = 0, P = 0.003) and 26% lower risk of CV death/HF hospitalization (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.68−0.80, I2 = 0, P < 0.001). Regarding the safety outcomes, our data revealed no significant differences between SGLT2i and placebo groups in drug related discontinuations, amputations, severe hypoglycemia, hypotension, volume depletion, ketoacidosis and genital infections. By contrast, a protective role of SGLT2i against placebo was found for serious adverse events and acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS In patients with HF, regardless of LVEF phenotype, all SGLT2i had an excellent safety profile and significantly reduced the risk of all-cause mortality, CV mortality, HF hospitalizations and CV deaths/HF hospitalizations compared to placebo.
Homocysteine, hypertension, and risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause death in the Chinese elderly population: a prospective study
Zhong-Ying ZHANG, Xiang GU, Zhe TANG, Shao-Chen GUAN, Hong-Jun LIU, Xiao-Guang WU, Yan ZHAO, Xiang-Hua FANG
2021, 18(10): 796-808. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.005
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 BACKGROUND Increased homocysteine levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. However, their prevention has not been effective in decreasing CVD risk. This study investigated the individual and combined associations of hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension with incident CVD events and all-cause death in the Chinese elderly population without a history of CVD. METHODS This prospective study was conducted among 1,257 elderly participants (mean age: 69 years). A questionnaire survey, physical examinations, and laboratory tests were conducted to collect baseline data. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as homocysteine level ≥ 15 µmol/L. H-type hypertension was defined as concomitant hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate individual and combined associations of hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension with the risks of incident CVD events and all-cause death. RESULTS Over a median of 4.84-year follow-up, hyperhomocysteinemia was independently associated with incident CVD events and all-cause death. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.01−2.08) for incident CVD events and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.04−2.30) for all-cause death. After adjustment for confounding factors, H-type hypertension had the highest HRs for incident CVD events and all-cause death. The fully adjusted HRs were 2.44 for incident CVD events (95% CI: 1.28−4.65), 2.07 for stroke events (95% CI: 1.01−4.29), 8.33 for coronary events (95% CI: 1.10−63.11), and 2.31 for all-cause death (95% CI: 1.15−4.62). CONCLUSIONS Hyperhomocysteinemia was an independent risk factor, and when accompanied by hypertension, it contributed to incident CVD events and all-cause death in the Chinese elderly population without a history of CVD.
Safety of digoxin in nonagenarian patients with atrial fibrillation: lessons from the Spanish Multicenter Registry
Pablo Domínguez-Erquicia, Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín, Emad Abu-Assi, María Cespón-Fernández, David Alonso-Rodríguez, Santiago Jesús Camacho-Freire, Naiara Cubelos-Fernández, Álvaro López-Masjuán Ríos, María Melendo-Viu, Andrés Íñiguez-Romo
2021, 18(10): 809-815. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.007
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 BACKGROUND The association between digoxin and mortality is an unclear issue. In older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), where use of digoxin is frequent, the evidence of its safety is scarce. Our aim is to assess the safety of digoxin in nonagenarian patients with AF. METHODS We evaluated data from 795 nonagenarian patients with non-valvular AF from the Spanish Multicenter Registry. We analyzed the relationship between digoxin and all-cause mortality with the Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS Follow-up was 27.7 ± 18.3 months. Mean age was 92.5 ± 3.8 years, and 71% of nonagenarian patients were female. Digoxin was not associated with increased risk of mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96−1.41, P = 0.130]. However, we found a significant increase in mortality in the subgroup with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (aHR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.13−3.57, P = 0.018), but not in the other subgroups of eGFR (30−59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and ≥ 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). When exploring the risk of mortality according to sex, male subgroup was associated with an increase in mortality (aHR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.02−2.14, P = 0.041). This was not observed in females subgroup (aHR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.81−1.29, P = 0.829). Based on the presence or absence of heart failure, we did not find significant differences (aHR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.87−1.65, P = 0.268 vs. aHR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.90−1.47, P = 0.273, respectively). CONCLUSIONS In our large registry of nonagenarian patients with AF, we did not find an association between digoxin and mortality in the total sample. However, in the subgroup analyses, we found an increase in mortality with the use of digoxin in men and in patients with an eGFR < 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2.
The association of cardiovascular mortality with a first-degree family member history of different cardiovascular diseases
Charbel Gharios, Mireille Leblebjian, Samia Mora, Roger S. Blumenthal, Miran A. Jaffa, Marwan M. Refaat
2021, 18(10): 816-824. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.001
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 OBJECTIVE To investigate which history of cardiovascular disease [coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or peripheral arterial disease] in a first-degree family member predicts cardiovascular mortality.  METHODS We studied a prospective cohort (the Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study) from ten primary care centers across North America. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality, assessed using Cox survival models.  RESULTS There were 8,646 participants (mean age: 47.4 ± 12.1 years, 46% women, 52% of participants with hyperlipidemia) who were followed up for a mean duration of 19.4 ± 4.9 years. There were 1,851 deaths (21%), including 852 cardiovascular deaths. A paternal, maternal or sibling history of premature CHD (before 60 years) was present in 26% of participants, of stroke in 27% of participants, and of peripheral arterial disease in 24% of participants. After adjusting for risk factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), only a paternal history of premature or any CHD, a maternal history of diabetes mellitus or premature or any CHD, and a sibling history of premature CHD, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia were individually predictive of cardiovascular mortality. After adjusting for risk factors and the mentioned familial factors, only paternal and maternal histories of CHD, especially before 60 years, remained predictive of cardiovascular mortality, with a somewhat higher association for a maternal history [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.36−2.92, P < 0.001 for maternal history of premature CHD; aHR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.10−2.10, P = 0.011 for paternal history of premature CHD]. Family history of stroke or peripheral arterial disease did not predict cardiovascular mortality. Parental history of premature CHD predicted cardiovascular mortality independently of baseline age (< 60 years and ≥ 60 years), hypertension, or hyperlipidemia and carried more important prognostic value in men rather than women.  CONCLUSIONS In this study, a parental history of CHD, especially before 60 years, best predicted cardiovascular mortality. This finding could help more accurately identify high-risk patients who would benefit from preventive strategies.
The incidence and predictors of high-degree atrioventricular block in patients with bicuspid aortic valve receiving self-expandable transcatheter aortic valve implantation
Yuan-Weixiang OU, Jing-Jing HE, Xuan ZHOU, Guo-Yong LI, Yan-Biao LIAO, Xin WEI, Yong PENG, Yuan FENG, Mao CHEN
2021, 18(10): 825-835. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.004
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 BACKGROUND  The high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains high. The study aims to explore this poorly understood subject of mechanisms and predictors for HAVB in BAV self-expandable TAVI patients. METHODS  We retrospectively included 181 BAV patients for analysis. Using computed tomography data, the curvature of ascending aorta (AAo) was quantified by the angle (AAo angle) between annulus and the cross-section at 35 mm above annulus (where the stent interacts with AAo the most). The valvular anatomy and leaflet calcification were also characterized. RESULTS  The 30-day HAVB rate was 16.0% (median time to HAVB was three days). Type-1 morphology was found in 79 patients (43.6%) (left- and right-coronary cusps fusion comprised 79.7%). Besides implantation below membrane septum, large AAo angle [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.016] and type-1 morphology (OR = 4.97, P = 0.001) were found as the independent predictors for HAVB. Together with baseline right bundle branch block, these predictors showed strong predictability for HAVB with area under the cure of 0.84 (sensitivity = 62.1%, specificity = 92.8%). Bent AAo and calcified raphe had a synergistic effect in facilitating high implantation, though the former is associated with at-risk deployment (device implanted above annulus + prothesis pop-out, versus straight AAo: 9.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS  AAo curvature and type-1 morphology are novel predictors for HAVB in BAV patients following self-expandable TAVI. For patients with bent AAo or calcified raphe, a progressive approach to implant the device above the lower edge of membrane septum is favored, though should be done cautiously to avoid pop-out.
The role of electrocardiographic imaging in patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy
Saer Abu-Alrub, Marc Strik, Peter Huntjens, Michel Haïssaguerre, Romain Eschalier, Pierre Bordachar, Sylvain Ploux
2021, 18(10): 836-843. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.006
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Are angiographic culprit lesions true? Disagreement between angiographic and optical coherence tomographic detection
Osamu Kurihara, Masamichi Takano, Yusaku Shibata, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Yasushi Miyauchi, Kuniya Asai
2021, 18(10): 844-846. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.010
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Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms treated with leflunomide: an eight-year follow-up case report and literature review
Xue-Ping WU, Xiao-Ning ZHAO, Xiao-Qun ZHU, Wei-Ren CHEN
2021, 18(10): 847-850. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.009
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Lead dislodgement complicated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation as a rare cause of inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock: a case report
Gao-Feng LIN, Tong ZOU, Ming-Hui DU, Jia-Bin TONG, Hai-Feng SHI, Hao CHEN, Jun-Peng LIU, Jia CHONG, You LYU, Su-Juan WU, Zhi-Lei WANG, Xin JIN, Xu GAO, Lin SUN, Jie-Fu YANG
2021, 18(10): 851-854. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.002
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The misfit mitral valve
Sebastian Alejandro Mikulic, José Ramón Rivas, Hui-Jun GUO, Khadeeja Esmail
2021, 18(10): 855-856. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.10.008
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