ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2020 Vol. 17, No. 7

The prognostic role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction
Ekaterina A Polyakova, Evgeny N Mikhaylov
2020, 17(7): 379-383. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.007
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Research Article
Associations of soybean products intake with blood pressure changes and hypertension incidence: the China-PAR project
Jia-Liu WEI, Xin-Yan WANG, Fang-Chao LIU, Ji-Chun CHEN, Jie CAO, Jian-Xin LI, Dong-Sheng HU, Chong SHEN, Fang-Hong LU, Ying-Xin ZHAO, Jian-Feng HUANG, Xiang-Feng LU
2020, 17(7): 384-392. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.005
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 Background The relationships between dietary intake of soybean products and incident hypertension were still uncertain. This study aimed to illustrate the associations between intake of soybean products with risks of incident hypertension and longitudinal changes of blood pressure in a prospective cohort study. Methods We included 67, 499 general Chinese adults from the Project of Prediction for Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular Disease Risk in China (China-PAR). Information about soybean products consumption was collected by standardized questionnaires, and study participants were categorized into the ideal (≥ 125 g/day) or non-ideal (< 125 g/day) group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident hypertension were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Among participants with repeated measures of blood pressure, generalized linear models were used to examine the relationships between soybean products consumption and blood pressure changes. Results During a median follow-up of 7.4 years, compared with participants who consumed < 125 g of soybean products per day, multivariable adjusted HR for those in the ideal group was 0.73 (0.67-0.80). This inverse association remained robust across most subgroups while significant interactions were tested between soybean products intake and age, sex, urbanization and geographic region (P values for interaction < 0.05). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were 1.05 (0.71-1.39) mmHg and 0.44 (0.22-0.66) mmHg lower among participants in the ideal group than those in the non-ideal group. Conclusions Our study showed that intake of soybean products might reduce the long-term blood pressure levels and hypertension incidence among Chinese population, which has important public health implications for primary prevention of hypertension.
Modified subintimal plaque modification improving future recanalization of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention
Ruo-Fei JIA, Long LI, Yong ZHU, Cheng-Zhi YANG, Shuai MENG, Yang RUAN, Xiao-Jing CAO, Hong-Yu HU, Wei CHEN, Jing NAN, Xiao-Wei XIONG, Jing-Jin LI, Jia-Yu WANG, Ze-Ning JIN
2020, 17(7): 393-399. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.009
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 Background Subintimal plaque modification (SPM) is often performed to restore antegrade flow and facilitate subsequent lesion recanalization. This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of modified SPM with traditional SPM. Methods A total of 1454 consecutive patients who failed a chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO PCI) attempt and underwent SPM from January 2015 to December 2019 at our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fifty-four patients who underwent SPM finally were included in this study. We analyzed the outcomes of all the patients, and the primary endpoint was recanalization rate, which was defined as Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grades 2-3 flow on angiography 30 to 90 days post-procedure. Results The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. In the follow-up, the recanalization rate was noticeably higher in the modified SPM group compared with the traditional SPM group (90.9% vs. 62.5%, P < 0.05). The proposed strategy in the modified group was more aggressive, including a larger balloon size (1.83 ± 0.30 vs. 2.48 ± 0.26 mm, P < 0.05) and longer subintimal angioplasty (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12 mm, P < 0.05). Also, the common use of a Stingray balloon and guide catheter extension resulted in improvement of patients in the modified SMP group (12.5% vs. 100%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Modified SPM, which is associated with a high likelihood of successful recanalization, is an effective and safe CTO PCI bail out strategy.
Left atrial diameter and atrial fibrillation, but not elevated NT-proBNP, predict the development of pulmonary hypertension in patients with HFpEF
Yi-Xian LIU, Hui LI, Yi-Yuan XIA, Chun-Lei XIA, Xin-Liang QU, Peng CHU, Wen-Yin ZHOU, Lin-Lin ZHU, Li LI, Shao-Liang CHEN, Jun-Xia ZHANG
2020, 17(7): 400-409. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.002
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 Background The determinants of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been poorly investigated in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods From July 1 2017 to March 31 2019, a total of 149 consecutive HFpEF patients hospitalized with CVD were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. A systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) > 35 mmHg estimated by echocardiography was defined as PH-HFpEF. Logistic regression was performed to establish predictors of PH in HFpEF patients. Results Overall, the mean age of participants was 72 ± 11 years, and 74 (49.7%) patients were females. A total of 59 (39.6%) patients were diagnosed with PH-HFpEF by echocardiography. The left atrial diameter (LAD) was related to the ratio of the transmitral flow velocities/mitral annulus tissue velocities in early diastole (E/E') and the left ventricular diameter in systole (LVDs). N-Terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was not found to be associated with LAD and impaired diastolic or systolic function of the left ventricle. Multivariable logistic regression showed that atrial fibrillation (AF) increased the risk of PH-HFpEF incidence 3.46-fold with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.44–8.32, P = 0.005. Meanwhile, LAD ≥ 45 mm resulted in a 3.43-fold increased risk, 95% CI: 1.51–7.75, P = 0.003. However, the significance levels of NT-proBNP, age and LVEF were underpowered in the regression model. Two variables, AF and LAD ≥ 45 mm, predicted the PH-HFpEF incidence (C-statistic = 0.773, 95% CI: 0.695–0.852, P < 0.001). Conclusions Two parameters associated with electrical and anatomical remodelling of the left atrium were related to the incidence of PH in HFpEF patients with CVD.
Quality of life, physical performance and nutritional status in older patients hospitalized in a cardiology department
Matthieu Lilamand, Mariannick Saintout, Marie Vigan, Astrid Bichon, Laure Tourame, Aurélie Brembilla Diet, Bernard Iung, Dominique Himbert, Cédric Laouenan, Agathe Raynaud-Simon
2020, 17(7): 410-416. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.004
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 Objectives Quality of life (QoL) is a priority outcome in older adults suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Frailty and poor nutritional status may affect the QoL through mobility disorders and exhaustion. The objective of this study was to determine if physical frailty and nutritional status were associated with QoL, in older cardiology patients. Methods Cross sectional, observational study conducted in a cardiology department from a university hospital. Participants (n = 100) were aged 70 and older. Collected data included age, sex, cardiac diseases, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, comorbidities (Charlson Index) and disability. A Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), including walking speed assessment was performed; handgrip strength were measured as well as Fried's frailty phenotype. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Body Mass Index (BMI), inflammation by C-reactive protein (CRP). QoL was assessed using the EORTC–QLQ questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to study the associations between all recorded parameters and QoL. Results In participants (mean age: 79.3 ± 6.7 years; male: 59%), Charlson index, arrhythmia, heart failure, NYHA classⅢ-Ⅳ, MNA, disability, walking speed, SPPB score, frailty and CRP were significantly associated with QoL in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that NYHA classⅢ-Ⅳ (P < 0.001), lower MNA score (P = 0.03), frailty (P < 0.0001), and higher CRP (P < 0.001) were independently associated with decreased QoL. Conclusions Frailty, nutritional status and inflammation were independently associated with poor QoL. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of nutritional and physical interventions on QoL in this population.
Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverters defibrillators: a comparison of acceptance between octogenarians and younger patients
Iva Safarikova, Alan Bulava, Premysl Hajek
2020, 17(7): 417-426. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.008
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 Background Remote monitoring (RM) is increasingly employed for all types of cardiac implantable devices (CIED). However, there are only limited data on the acceptance of RM by the elderly. The aim of our study was to ascertain how octogenarians assess RM technologies compared to younger, presumably technically more literate patients, and what concerns or technical problems the system presents to both groups of patients. Methods The trial was designed as a descriptive, register-based single-center study. The study population consisted of all consecutive patients ≥ 80 years of age (group A, n = 94) and all consecutive patients aged ≤ 40 years (group B, n = 71), who had undergone implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) between the years of 2009 and 2018 and were using a Home MonitoringTM (HM, Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) system. All patients fulfilling entry criteria were approached with a request to participate in the survey. Results A total of 85 (90.4%) and 65 (91.5%) valid surveys were obtained for groups A and B, respectively. Ninety-two percent of patients in both groups (P = 0.903) were satisfied with the limited number of planned ambulatory follow-ups (i.e., once a year). All patients in both groups (100%) reported that they were satisfied with the HM system, and 97% and 94% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively, ranked it highly beneficial (P = 0.68). A significant proportion of patients in both groups were completely unaware of any health-related benefits associated with the use of the HM system (42% in Group A vs. 49% in Group B, P = 0.4). Among the most frequently reported personal benefits of HM were a sense of safety and security and savings on travel expenses and time. 5% and 9% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively, reported that usage of HM caused them some degree of psychological stress (P = 0.27). Nearly all patients in both groups reported receiving information on HM from their doctor after ICD implantation. None of Group A reported receiving information from a nurse either before or after ICD implantation, while 14% of Group B patients reported receiving information from a nurse after, but not before ICD implantation. Seven and 51% (P < 0.0001) of patients in Group A and B, respectively, sought additional information about HM post-discharge. Conclusions The HM system received good marks and was much appreciated, even in patients over 80 years of age. The level of acceptance and potential psychological stress resulting from RM technology appears to be about the same in older patients as in younger patients. The majority of octogenarians either did not fully understand the clinical benefits of the system or mistakenly thought that the HM system was a substitute for emergency 24-h surveillance. These results highlight the need for better patient education relative to RM technology, with one option being to delegate more of this educational process to specially trained nurses.
Plasma big endothelin-1 is an effective predictor for ventricular arrythmias and end-stage events in primary prevention implantable cardioverter- defibrillator indication patients
Xiao-Yao LI, Shuang ZHAO, Xiao-Han FAN, Ke-Ping CHEN, Wei HUA, Zhi-Min LIU, Xiao-Di XUE, Bin ZHOU, Shu ZHANG
2020, 17(7): 427-433. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.003
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 Objective To investigate whether plasma big endothelin-1 (ET-1) predicts ventricular arrythmias (VAs) and end-stage events in primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) indication patigents. Methods In total, 207 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria from Fuwai Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort was divided into three groups according to baseline plasma big ET-1 tertiles: tertile 1 (< 0.38 pmol/L, n = 68), tertile 2 (0.38–0.7 pmol/L, n = 69), and tertile 3 (> 0.7 pmol/L, n = 70). The primary endpoints were VAs. The secondary endpoints were end-stage events comprising all-cause mortality and heart transplantation. Results During a mean follow-up period of 25.6 ± 13.9 months, 38 (18.4%) VAs and 78 (37.7%) end-stage events occurred. Big ET-1 was positively correlated with NYHA class (r = 0.165, P = 0.018), serum creatinine concentration (Scr; r = 0.147, P = 0.034), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; r = 0.217, P = 0.002), Lg NT-pro BNP (r = 0.463, P < 0.001), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD; r= 0.234, P = 0.039) and negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; r = −0.181, P = 0.032). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that elevated big ET-1 was associated with increased risk of VAs and end-stage events (P < 0.05). In multivariate Cox regression models, big ET-1 was an independent risk factor for VAs (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.477, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.352–8.940, P = 0.010, tertile 2 vs. tertile 1; HR = 4.112, 95% CI: 1.604–10.540, P = 0.003, tertile 3 vs. tertile 1) and end-stage events (HR = 2.804, 95% CI: 1.354–5.806, P = 0.005, tertile 2 vs. tertile 1; HR = 4.652, 95% CI: 2.288–9.459, P < 0.001, tertile 3 vs. tertile 1). Conclusions In primary prevention ICD indication patients, plasma big ET-1 levels can predict VAs and end-stage events and may facilitate ICD-implantation risk stratification.
Atherosclerosis, its risk factors, and cognitive impairment in older adults
Yun-Li XING, Michael A Chen, Ying SUN, Moni B Neradilek, Xi-Ting WU, Dai ZHANG, Wei HUANG, Yining CUI, Qi-Qi YANG, Hong-Wei LI, Xue-Qiao ZHAO
2020, 17(7): 434-440. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.006
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 Objective To examine the association of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and its risk factors with cognitive impairment in older adults. Methods Six hundred and fourteen subjects, aged ≥ 65 years, from one center (2016–2018) underwent clinical, laboratory assessments and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Using regression analysis, the relationship between ASCVD and its risk factors was evaluated in subjects with and without cognitive impairment (MoCA score < 26). Results Older age (β =-1.3 per 5 years, 95% CI: -1.7 to -0.9, P < 0.001), history of stroke (β = -1.6, 95% CI: -3.0 to -0.3, P = 0.01), and myocardial infarction (MI; β = -2.2, 95% CI: -3.6 to -0.8, P = 0.003) were independently associated with lower MoCA scores, whereas more education (β = 1.5 per 3 years, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9, P < 0.001), higher body mass index (BMI; β = 0.5 per 3 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.0 to 1.0, P= 0.04), higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; β = 0.8 per 15 U, 95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4, P = 0.03), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; β = 0.4 per 5%, 95% CI: 0 to 0.8, P = 0.04) and statin use (β = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.3 to 2.3, P = 0.01) were associated with a higher MoCA score. Cognitive impairment was independently associated with older age (OR = 1.51 per 5 yrs, 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.79, P < 0.001), less education (OR = 0.55 per 3 years, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.68, P < 0.001), lower BMI (OR = 0.78 per 3 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.98, P = 0.03) and higher levels of high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP; OR = 1.08 per 1 mg/L, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15, P = 0.01). Conclusions Beyond age, cognitive impairment was associated with prior MI/stroke, higher hsCRP, statin use, less education, lower eGFR, BMI and LVEF.
Letter to the Editor
Measuring frailty in patients with severe aortic stenosis: a comparison of the edmonton frail scale with modified fried frailty assessment in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement
Francisco J Romeo, Maximiliano Smietniansky, Mariela Cal, Cristian Garmendia, Juan M Valle Raleigh, Ignacio M. Seropian, Mariano Falconi, Pablo Oberti, Vadim Kotowicz, Carla R. Agatiello, Daniel H Berrocal
2020, 17(7): 441-446. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.001
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Atypical variants of takotsubo cardiomyopathy: mechanistic and clinical implications
Kenan Yalta, Ertan Yetkın, Gokay Taylan
2020, 17(7): 447-448. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.07.010
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