ISSN 1671-5411 CN 11-5329/R

2017 Vol. 14, No. 7

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Coronary heart disease incidence and competing risks: an important issue
Paolo Emilio Puddu, Peter Louis Amaduzzi, Beatrice Ricci
2017, 14(7): 425-429. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.007
Verapamil and vasospastic angina: underuse in the elderly population
Xavier Humbert, Vincent Roule, Paul Milliez, Joachim Alexandre
2017, 14(7): 430-435. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.004
Usefulness of coronary flow reserve measured by transthoracic coronary Doppler ultrasound in the elderly
Danijela Trifunovic, Edina Cenko, Concetta Torromeo, Beatrice Ricci, Michele Schiariti, Marija Zdravkovic, Zorana Vasiljevic, Olivia Manfrini
2017, 14(7): 436-441. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.008
Antithrombotic treatment tailoring and risk score evaluation in elderly patients diagnosed with an acute coronary syndrome
Alexandru Nicolae Mischie, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Crina Sinescu, Gani Bajraktari, Eugen Ivan, Georgios Nikolaos Chatziathanasiou, Michele Schiariti
2017, 14(7): 442-456. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.006
Age is an important prognostic factor in the outcome of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). A substantial percentage of patients who experience ACS is more than 75 years old, and they represent the fastest-growing segment of the population treated in this setting. These patients present different patterns of responses to pharmacotherapy, namely, a higher ischemic and bleeding risk than do patients under 75 years of age. Our aim was to identify whether the currently available ACS ischemic and bleeding risk scores, which has been validated for the general population, may also apply to the elderly population. The second aim was to determine whether the elderly benefit more from a specific pharmacological regimen, keeping in mind the numerous molecules of antiplatelet and antithrombotic drugs, all validated in the general population. We concluded that the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score has been extensively validated in the elderly. However, the CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines) bleeding score has a moderate correlation with outcomes in the elderly. Until now, there have not been head-to-head scores that quantify the ischemic versus hemorrhagic risk or scores that use the same end point and timeline (e.g., ischemic death rate versus bleeding death rate at one month). We also recommend that the frailty score be considered or integrated into the current existing scores to better quantify the overall patient risk. With regard to medical treatment, based on the subgroup analysis, we identified the drugs that have the least adverse effects in the elderly while maintaining optimal efficacy.
Update on pharmacological treatment of acute coronary syndrome without persistent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the elderly
Coskun Usta, Asli Bedel
2017, 14(7): 457-464. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.005
The increase in cardiovascular disease prevalence with ageing has been attributed to several age-related changes such as changes in the vascular wall elasticity, the coagulation and haemostatic system and endothelial dysfunction, among other causes. There is a 50% increased mortality risk per 10-year increase in age starting at 65 years old. Here, we aimed to discuss pharmacological treatment in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without persistent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the elderly. The main aim of the ACS treatment in elderly people is at preventing ischemia, myocardial damage and complications. A meta-analysis suggests that invasive revascularization therapy is probably most useful in older patients. Dual antiplatelet therapy is currently the standard of care post-ACS. Platelet P2Y12 inhibitors are among the most commonly used medications worldwide, due to their established benefits in the treatment and prevention of arterial thrombosis. The main recommendation is to tailor antithrombotic treatment, considering body weight, renal function (Class I, level C) and careful evaluation of life expectancy, comorbidities, risk/benefit profile, quality of life and frailty when invasive strategies are considered (Class IIa, level A) on top of the different recommendations given for a general non ST elevation ACS population. It is obvious that potent P2Y12 inhibitors will continue to play an important role in pharmacological treatment for elderly ACS patients in the future.
Determinants of invasive strategy in elderly patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction
Antonin Negers, Jacques Boddaert, Lucie Mora, Jean-Louis Golmard, Laura Moisi, Ariel Cohen, Jean-Philippe Collet, Alice Breining
2017, 14(7): 465-472. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.001
Background Knowledge gaps across literature prevent current guidelines from providing the profile of elderly patients most likely to derive benefit from invasive strategy (IS) in non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Furthermore, the benefit of IS in a real-world elderly population with NSTEMI remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine factors that lead the cardiologist to opt for an IS in elderly patients with NSTEMI, and to assess the impact of IS on the 6-month all-cause mortality. Methods This multicenter prospective study enrolled all consecutive patients aged ≥ 75 years old who presented a NSTEMI and were hospitalized in cardiology intensive care unit between February 2014 and February 2015. Patients were compared on the basis of reperfusion strategy (invasive or conservative) and living status at six months, in order to determine multivariate predictors of the realization of an IS and multivariate predictors of 6-month mortality. Results A total of 141 patients were included; 87 (62%) underwent an IS. The strongest independent determinants of IS were younger age [odds ratio (OR): 0.85, 95%-confidence interval (CI): 0.78 ± 0.92; P P = 0.002). IS was not significantly associated with 6-month survival (OR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.27–2.38; P = 0.69). Conclusions In real-world elderly patients with NSTEMI, younger patients with fewer comorbidities profited more often from an IS. However, IS did not modify 6-month all-cause mortality.
Glycation of high-density lipoprotein triggers oxidative stress and promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells
Qian DU, Ming-Ming QIAN, Pin-Li LIU, Le ZHANG, Yan WANG, Dong-Hui LIU
2017, 14(7): 473-480. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.003
Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) impairs its anti-atherogenic properties and even develops to a pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype because of abnormal compositions and modifications. In this study, we examined the effects and the related mechanisms of glycation of HDL on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods & Results Glycated HDL (G-HDL) was modified with D-glucose (25 mmol/L) in vitro. Diabetic HDL (D-HDL) was isolated from T2DM patients. Rat VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aortas. Human VSMCs were obtained from ScienCell Research Laboratories. Alpha-actin was detected through immunofluorescence. VSMC proliferation was assayed by Cell Count. VSMC migration was determined by transwell chamber and scratch-wound assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected based on ROS-mediated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. Compared to native HDL (N-HDL), G-HDL remarkably promoted VSMC proliferation and migration in the dose and time-dependent manners. In addition, G-HDL enhanced ROS generation in VSMCs. However, the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, efficiently decreased ROS production and subsequently inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by G-HDL. Similarly, D-HDL from T2DM patients also promoted ROS release and VSMC proliferation and migration. Conclusions HDL either glycated in vitro or isolated from T2DM patients triggered VSMC proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress. These results might partly interpret the higher morbidity of cardiovascular disease in T2DM patients.
Acute myocardial infarction in patients of nephrotic syndrome: a case series
Liang XIE, Yi TANG, Jing LIU, Song-Qing HE, Jian-Hua LI, Ying ZHU, Zheng-Bing LIU, Zhen CHENG, Jian-Bin GONG
2017, 14(7): 481-484. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.009
Clinical features of aortic dissection associated with Takayasu’s arteritis
Xue-Ping WU, Ping ZHU
2017, 14(7): 485-487. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.010
Two case of preoperative bridging therapy for patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery after coronary stent implantation
Le-Qun ZHOU, Shao-Min CHEN, Yong-Zhen ZHANG, Li-Yun HE, Wei GAO
2017, 14(7): 488-490. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.07.002