2022 Vol. 19, No. 8
Effect of uninterrupted dabigatran or rivaroxaban on achieving ideal activated clotting time to heparin response during catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation
2022, 19(8): 565-574. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.08.004
BACKGROUND Uninterrupted use of oral anticoagulants before atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation can reduce the incidence of perioperative thromboembolic events. However, the effect of new oral anticoagulants on activated clotting time (ACT) in response to heparin during AF ablation in Chinese populations remains unknown. The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the value of ACTs in response to intraoperative heparin administration in patients using dabigatran or rivaroxaban. METHODS From January 2018 to December 2021, a total of 173 patients undergoing AF ablation were included in the study, in which 101 patients were treated with dabigatran, 72 patients were treated with rivaroxaban. The intraoperative ACT values were examined in both groups. The incidence of periprocedural complications was evaluated. RESULTS Initial heparin dosage (88 ± 19 U/kg vs. 78 ± 27 U/kg, P < 0.05), total heparin dosage (137 ± 41 U/kg vs. 106 ± 52 U/kg, P < 0.05) during the ablation procedure were higher in the dabigatran group than those in the rivaroxaban group. Mean ACT (280 ± 36 s vs. 265 ± 30 s, P < 0.05), and the percentage of ACTs within the therapeutic range (250–350 s) (74% ± 26% vs. 60% ± 29%, P < 0.05) were significantly lower in the dabigatran group than those in the rivaroxaban group, particularly in male patients. Furthermore, the average time of achieving the target ACT (250–350 s) was also found longer in the dabigatran group (P < 0.05) as compared with the rivaroxaban group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of periprocedural complications between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The anticoagulant effect of uninterrupted rivaroxaban therapy appears to be more stable and efficient than dabigatran administration during catheter ablation in patients with AF.
Inflammation-based different association between anatomical severity of coronary artery disease and lung cancer
2022, 19(8): 575-582. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.08.003
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with cancer. The role of inflammation in the association of CAD with cancer remains unclear. The study investigated whether inflammation could impact the relationship between CAD and lung cancer. METHODS The study involved 96 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients without receiving anti-cancer therapy and 288 matched non-cancer patients. All the patients underwent coronary angiography and were free from previous percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. SYNTAX score (SXscore) were used to assess severity of CAD. High SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 16 (highest quartile). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) served as an inflammatory biomarker. NLR-high grade referred to NLR > 2.221 (median). RESULTS Among 384 study patients, 380 patients (98.96%) had NLR value (median: 2.221, interquartile range: 1.637–3.040). Compared to non-cancer patients, lung cancer patients had higher rate of SXhigh among total study patients (P = 0.014) and among patients with NLR-high (P = 0.006), but had not significantly higher rate of SXhigh among patients with NLR-low (P = 0.839). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SXhigh was associated with lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.834, 95% CI: 1.063–3.162, P = 0.029]. Subgroup analysis showed that SXhigh was associated with lung cancer among patients with NLR-high (OR = 2.801, 95% CI: 1.355–5.794, P = 0.005), however, the association between SXhigh and lung cancer was not significant among patients with NLR-low (OR = 0.897, 95% CI: 0.346–2.232, P = 0.823). CONCLUSIONS Inflammation could lead different association between anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Severity of CAD was significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer among patients with high inflammation rather than among patients with low inflammation.
Long-term outcome of percutaneous or surgical revascularization with and without prior stroke in patients with three-vessel disease
2022, 19(8): 583-593. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.08.001
OBJECTIVE To determine whether high-risk patients with three-vessel disease (TVD) with and without prior stroke preferentially benefit from three strategies [percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and medical therapy (MT)]. METHODS A total of 8943 patients with TVD were included in the study. Patients enrolled were stratified into two categories according to the presence or absence of prior stroke history. The primary endpoint was all-cause death. Secondary endpoints included stroke and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), unplanned revascularization and stroke. RESULTS Prior stroke was present in 888 patients (9.9%). These patients were older and had higher rates of comorbidities. During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, patients with prior stroke were strongly associated with increased risks of all-cause death, cardiac death, stroke and MACCE, even after adjusting for confounding variables and results been consistent across either treatment subgroup (PCI, CABG and MT) (all adjusted P < 0.01). Notably, there was a significant interaction between prior stroke history and treatment strategies. Revascularization strategy (PCI or CABG) was associated with a lower incidence of all-cause death and MACCE compared with MT alone, and favorable rates of MACCE, MI and unplanned revascularization in the CABG group compared with the PCI group, but with similar rate of all-cause death regardless of prior stroke history. The prevalence of stroke was significantly higher after CABG when compared with PCI or MT in no prior stroke patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.429, 95% CI: 1.132–1.805 for CABG vs. MT; HR = 1.703, 95% CI: 1.371–2.116 for CABG vs. PCI]. CONCLUSIONS Patients with TVD and prior stroke have poor clinical outcomes. It is essential to balance benefit and risk when determining the optimal treatment strategy for TVD with and without prior stroke.
Relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in outpatients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment compared with community residents without dementia
2022, 19(8): 594-602. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.08.002
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether the dementia patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed dementia (MIX, including AD and VaD) would have more developed arterial stiffness as compared with local residents without dementia. The aim of this study was to assess arterial stiffness and cognitive function in different types of dementia patients [AD, VaD, MIX and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)] and community residents without dementia. METHODS This was a single-center, cross-sectional observational study. We studied a cohort of 600 elderly outpatients with a complaint of memory loss, who were divided into four groups (AD, VaD, MIX and MCI). In addition, they were compared with 55 age-matched local residents without dementia (Controls). We assessed arterial stiffness by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the global cognitive function by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS The baPWV was higher in AD, VaD and MIX than in MCI and in Controls (P < 0.05). The baPWV was higher in MCI than in Controls (P = 0.021), while MMSE were compatible between them (P = 0.119). The higher baPWV predicted the presence of AD, VaD, MIX and MCI with the odds ratio of 6.46, 8.74, 6.16 and 6.19, respectively. In contrast, there were no difference in baPWV among three different types of dementia (P = 0.191). The linear relationship between baPWV and MMSE was observed in the elderly with MMSE ≥ 23 (R = 0.452, P = 0.033), while it was not in dementia patients (MMSE < 23). CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that MCI and dementia patients have stiffer arteries as compared with age-matched local residents, although global cognitive function may be comparable between MCI and the local residents.
Serum triglycerides concentration in relation to total and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly Chinese population
2022, 19(8): 603-609. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.08.007
OBJECTIVE To investigate serum triglycerides in relation to all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality in an elderly Chinese population. METHODS The study participants (n = 3565) were elderly (≥ 60 years) community dwellers living in a suburban town of Shanghai. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as a serum triglycerides concentration ≥ 2.30 mmol/L (definite) and ≥ 1.70 mmol/L (borderline), respectively. RESULTS The prevalence of definite and borderline hypertriglyceridemia at baseline was 7.5% and 29.5%, respectively. It was higher in women (n = 1982, 9.0% and 33.8%, respectively) than men (n = 1583, 6.2% and 27.9%, respectively), in obese and overweight participants (n = 1566, 10.5% and 36.4%, respectively) than normal weight participants (n = 1999, 5.6% and 27.1%, respectively), and in diabetic participants (n = 177, 11.9% and 39.0%, respectively) than non-diabetic participants (n = 3388, 7.5% and 30.8%, respectively). During a median of 7.9 years follow-up, all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths occurred in 529, 216 and 313 participants, respectively. In analyses according to the quintile distributions of serum triglycerides concentration, the sex- and age-standardized mortality rate was lowest in the middle quintile for all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality (18.6, 7.8 and 11.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively, versus 21.5, 10.5 and 12.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively, in the two lower quintiles and 21.7, 9.5 and 14.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively, in the two higher quintiles). The fully adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for the middle quintile versus the combined two lower with two higher quintiles were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.67–1.07, P = 0.17), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.54–1.19, P = 0.28) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.64–1.17, P = 0.35) for all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, especially when defined as borderline and in obese and overweight participants, and mildly but non-significantly elevated risks of cardiovascular mortality relative to the middle level of serum triglycerides.
The predictive value of triglyceride-glucose index for in-hospital and one-year mortality in elderly non-diabetic patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
2022, 19(8): 610-617. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.08.006
BACKGROUND Triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a reliable marker of insulin resistance, was associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of TyG index for mortality in elderly non-diabetic patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS In total, 430 non-diabetic patients aged over 65 years with STEMI were consecutively included. The TyG index was calculated by using the following formula: TyG index = ln (fasting triglyceride × fasting glucose/2). The 5-item modified frailty index score was utilized to determine comorbidities. Patients were divided into three groups based on TyG index tertiles. RESULTS Patients included into high TyG index tertile were male and had higher body mass index, glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 5-item modified frailty index and GRACE risk score; and had low systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate and left ventricular ejection fraction. A one-unit increase in TyG index was associated with 3.03 extra cases per 1000 person-day for in-hospital mortality and 0.29 extra cases per 1000 person-day for long-term mortality. There was a non-linear relationship between TyG index and the risk of mortality with an increased risk above 8.5 for TyG index. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that patients in high TyG index tertile had higher in-hospital and long-term mortality rates than those in low TyG index tertile. CONCLUSIONS This was the first study to demonstrate that the TyG index could predict in-hospital and long-term mortality in elderly non-diabetic STEMI patients.